What is the dni
NIE / NIF / Residencia- What is it and what do I need?
NEVER - Número de Identidad de Extranjero
The NIE is a foreigner identification number, it is unique and valid for a lifetime. The NIE must always be stated in all applications, declarations and formalities to the Spanish authorities.
How do you get a NIE?
- If the NIE is only required for administrative purposes (e.g. buying a house), it can be obtained from the Ministry of the Interior (Policía Nacional), the tax office (Haciendas) or from the Spanish diplomatic missions abroad.
- If you are staying in Spain for more than 3 months, you are obliged to register in the Central Register of Foreigners (Registro de ciudadano de la Unión). You will receive the "Certificado de registro de ciudadano de la Unión", in which you will automatically be assigned a NIE, which is then also on the certificate.
This entry in the foreigner register has no effect on your place of residence or on tax matters.
NIF - Número de Identificación Fiscal
The NIF is also a personal tax number. This number corresponds to the ID card number (DNI) for Spanish nationals and the NIE for foreigners.
Your NIF is not automatically valid when you receive your NIE, it has to be requested separately. For EU citizens this means that they first need an NIE and then, if they become taxable in Spain, can apply for a NIF at the responsible tax office.
If you are resident in Spain, that is, if you stay in Spain for more than 183 days a year, you are considered a “resident”. From an administrative point of view, however, you are only considered a resident if you have registered with the residents' registration office (oficina de empadronamiento).
In contrast to the administrative residence, the tax residence (residencia fiscal) has more far-reaching consequences, because as soon as you are considered a resident for tax purposes, you have to pay tax on your income in Spain as well as fulfill the corresponding tax obligations such as regular tax returns.
It is good to know that the Spanish tax authorities are investing considerable resources in order to determine who is domiciled in Spain and who is only on vacation. It is therefore quite possible that the tax office will check whether your children are going to school in Spain, whether you regularly make money movements in Spain (cash withdrawals, card payments when shopping, ...), whether you regularly pay electricity, water or telephone bills, etc.
What are the advantages of residents?
For residents of the Balearic Islands, there is a 50% discount on trips within Spain. In addition, some municipalities offer their citizens a wide range of discounts (for example in museums, swimming pools, on local transport), which are only available to those who have officially resident status. Pensioners who use the Spanish healthcare system do not have to pay anything for medication.
Gestoría - administrative formalities agency
If you need help applying for the above document, you should contact a Gestoría. For a corresponding fee, this necessary, but also annoying and time-consuming work will be carried out for you.
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