How are enzymes affected by heat
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The influence of temperature
An increase in temperature accelerates enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. In biological systems, reactions at zero hardly take place at all. If the temperature is increased above 0, the reaction is slowly accelerated until it reaches a maximum at 37. With many enzymes, temperatures above 37 change the spatial structure (tertiary structure) that is important for their function, and this reduces the reaction speed. For most enzymes, the optimum effect is between 30 and 45; at temperatures below 10 or above 60, most enzymes no longer work.
- RGT rule (reaction rate temperature rule)
- The speed of enzyme-catalyzed reactions increases by a factor of 2-3 per 10.
- There are enzymes whose functions are not subject to these narrow limits and which are therefore particularly interesting for research and industry. This enables their hosts to survive in extreme habitats. An example of such extreme enzymes is the Taq polymerase from the archaebacterium Thermus aquaticusliving in hot springs. Taq polymerase is a DNA polymerase that is still active even at temperatures above 95. Due to its use in the polymerase chain reaction, Taq polymerase is one of the most important enzymes in modern molecular biology.
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