How do I restart Sendmail
5 Install sendmail
In the SuSE distribution, sendmail is included in series n, so it is easiest to install via YaST:
Set / start installation ->
Change / create configuration ->
After the installation, sendmail can be provided with its configuration file (sendmail.cf) again via YaST. To do this, call the menu in YaST
Administration of the system ->
Configure network ->
Select Configuration with access via a name server to allow sendmail to access the provider via a ppp connection. If the server is only operated locally, the selection is arbitrary, but it can be changed at any time in the event of a later INTERNET connection. The configuration file is now created in the / etc directory. The installation also writes the start / stop script sendmail to the directory /sbin/init.d and creates the symbolic links S20sendmail and K20sendmail in /etc/rc.d/rc2.d. To start sendmail now, enter the command on the command line
|root @ linux ~ # sh /etc/rc.d/sendmail start |
a. The ps command should now give us the following output:
|root @ linux ~ # ps ax | grep sendmail |
22432? S 0:00 sendmail: accepting connections on port 25
As you can see, sendmail now uses port 25 (SMTP) for incoming and outgoing connections. A sh /etc/rc.d/sendmail reload is sufficient to restart the service during operation
5.1 Entries in /etc/rc.config
The behavior of sendmail can be influenced, as is customary in UNIX, using command line parameters. For this purpose, SuSE has included variables in the start / stop script, which are set in the /etc/rc.config file.
-SENDMAIL_TYPE = "yes"
specifies that sendmail.cf should be configured using rc.config and YaST. With `` no '' we have to edit it ourselves.
-SENDMAIL_SMARTHOST = ""
When connecting via UUCP, the so-called `` smarthost '' (the communication partner) is entered here.
-SENDMAIL_LOCALHOST = "localhost"
The names listed here are regarded as aliases for your own computer. The DNS request is omitted!
-SENDMAIL_RELAY = ""
Sendmail does not deliver messages locally, but forwards them to the relay. This enables a relay network to be set up.
-SENDMAIL_ARGS = "- bd -q30m -om"
This is where sendmail's start parameters are passed. The complete list is obtained with man sendmail, the values listed here mean: -bd: sendmail starts as a daemon and goes into the background -q30m: the messages in the queue are processed every 30 minutes -om: the option `` m '' is set (see installation and operating manual ;-))
SENDMAIL_EXPENSIVE = "yes"
With this setting, sendmail only writes the messages to its message queue and does not deliver them until sendmail -q is called. This is required if you have connected the server to the INTERNET using an ISDN dial-up connection and you do not want every outgoing mail to establish a connection to the provider. Instead, you call sendmail -q via crontab, e.g. at night, and get or send the mail in one go (polling). Alternatively, the entry can also be included in the PPP start script so that a mail exchange takes place every time a connection is established
SENDMAIL_NOCANONIFY = "no"
Sendmail no longer tries to resolve the full name of the mail address via DNS for every mail. This setting is also important for ISDN dial-up connections to prevent local addresses from being resolved via the provider's DNS. Alternatively, a local DNS can prevent this (see Structure of a DNS server)
5.2 A quick look at sendmail.cf
To understand why sendmail is considered a `` configuration monster '', here is a small excerpt from the sendmail.cf file:
The mailertable file defines how the mail is to be delivered to certain target systems. It is not created by default at SuSE, which can lead to problems if you do not install the rpm package supplied by SuSE, but compile sendmail yourself from the sources. It is best to place the file with the command
and leaves it empty. However, if you want to use it, it has the following structure:
In order to make this mailertable known to the sendmail program, it must be translated into a DBM format using the makemap command. Don't forget to restart sendmail!
The / etc / aliases file enables various pseudonyms to be assigned to a real email address. For example, your alias for the person responsible for the system usually exists on web servers as [email protected], the NetNews system uses the synonym [email protected] to deliver error messages. In order not to have to create real accounts for each of these IDs, these can be assigned to one or more user accounts.
The syntax is therefore quite obvious, the entries news: pmeier, \ news and root: nkrueger, \ root are interesting. This ensures that the messages addressed to the news and root IDs are not only delivered to the real user pmeier, but also to the news and root system IDs. This creates a kind of mail archive for these IDs and you can also search for messages in it if nkrueger has already deleted them in its inbox.
In the second half of the file, the email addresses in the form [email protected], which are quite common today, are generated. However, this section needs to be maintained on a productive system with frequently changing accounts!
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