# What is the scope of a chart

## APPLICATION OF PERFORMANCE TABLES AND DIAGRAMS

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1 INTRODUCTION The following pages contain performance tables and diagrams so that you can find out what performance you can expect from your aircraft under different conditions and so that you can also carry out thorough and reasonably accurate flight planning. The values ​​in the tables and diagrams were calculated from the results of test flights with an aircraft and engine in good operating condition, based on average pilot skills. It should be noted that the performance data in the diagrams for range and flight time include a fuel reserve for 45 minutes at the corresponding engine power. Cruise fuel flow values ​​are based on the recommended lean mixture setting. Some indeterminable variables, such as The type of impoverishment of the mixture, the properties of the fuel measurement, the operating status of the engine and the propeller as well as turbulence can cause changes in range and flight duration of 10% and more. It is therefore important to evaluate all available information when calculating the amount of fuel required for the respective flight and to carry out a conservative flight planning. APPLICATION OF PERFORMANCE TABLES AND DIAGRAMS Performance data are presented either in tables or graphs to show the influence of the various variables. Sufficient! detailed information is provided in the tables so that values ​​lying on the safe side can be selected and used to calculate a certain performance with sufficient accuracy. FLIGHT PLANNING EXAMPLE The following flight planning example requires information from various tables and graphs in order to calculate the performance data for a typical flight. The following data are already known: Airplane configuration: take-off mass, usable fuel quantity, starting conditions: air pressure altitude, temperature, wind component along the runway, headwind, runway length 1111 kg 201 I 1500 ft 28 C 12 kts 1070 m Nov 17/97 5-3

2 CESSNA flight conditions: Total flight distance 320 NM Pressure altitude 5500 ft Temperature 20 C Expected line wind 10 kts Headwind Landing conditions Space pressure altitude Temperature .. Runway length 2000 ft 25 C 915 m TAKE-OFF ROUTE Fig. 5-5 is to be used to determine the take-off route, with it must be taken into account that the specified values ​​apply to the short start procedure. Values ​​that are on the safe side are obtained by reading the next higher mass, altitude and temperature value in the column or row. E.g. In the present flight planning example, the take-off route information for a take-off weight of 1111 kg, a pressure altitude of 2000 ft and a temperature of 30 C are to be used. The following result is obtained: Take-off runway Take-off route over 15m obstacle 388 m 700 m These values ​​are clearly within the available runway length. However, a correction according to note 3 of the take-off distance table can still be carried out to take the influence of wind into account. With a headwind of 12 kts, the take-off distance is a correction value of. _ 12 kts x 10% = 13% 9 kts I decrease. This results in the following distances, corrected for wind: Take-off taxiway, no wind 388 m Reduction in take-off taxiway - 51 m (388 mx13%) f-> Corrected take-off taxiway 337 m 5-4 Nov 17/97

3 Take-off distance over 15 m obstacle, no wind Reduction of take-off distance (700mx13%) Corrected take-off distance over 15 m obstacle 700 m - 91 m 609 m CRUISE The cruise is to be selected taking into account the duration of the flight, the altitude winds and the flight performance. For the flight planning example at hand, typical values ​​for cruising altitude and anticipated line wind were used. When choosing the engine power settings for cruise, however, several points must be considered. This includes the travel performance data shown in Fig. 5-8, the range diagram in Fig. 5-9 and the flight duration diagram in Fig. The range diagram shows the relationship between engine power and range. Lower power settings result in significant fuel savings and greater range. A travel performance of approx. 65% was used for this flight planning example. An altitude of 6000 ft and a temperature of 20 C above standard temperature are assumed for Fig. 5-8, travel performance diagram, as these values ​​are closest to the planned heights and the expected temperature. The selected engine speed is / min. The following values ​​are then determined: Power 64% True speed 109 kts Fuel flow during cruise 27.6 l / h June 2/97 5-5

4 CESSNA AMOUNT OF FUEL REQUIRED The total amount of fuel required for the flight can be calculated using the performance information in Figures 5-7 and 5-8. For the flight planning example at hand, Fig. 5-7 shows that a normal climb from 2000 ft to 6000 ft requires 5.3 l of fuel. The distance covered during the climb is 10 NM. These values ​​are for standard temperature and are sufficiently accurate for most flight planning purposes. However, to take the temperature into account, a correction can be made according to the note in the climb table. A deviation from the standard temperature has the effect that, due to the low rate of rise, the rise time, fuel quantity and rise distance are increased by 10% for every 10 C increase compared to the standard temperature. If one assumes 13 C above the standard temperature (28 C - 15 C) in the present example, the following correction results: 13 C x 10% = 13% increase of 10 C Taking this factor into account, the probable fuel requirement can be calculated as follows: Fuel consumption for the climb increase due to deviation from the standard temperature (5.3 x 13%) Corrected fuel requirement for the climb 5.3 I 0.75 I 6.05 I Using the same procedure for the correction of the climb distance results in 12 NM. (10 NM from the NM correction diagram due to deviation from the standard temperature 11.2 NM. Rounded up to 12 NM.) 5-6 June 2/97

5 June 2/97 5-7

6 MAXIMUM CLIMBING SPEED AT A TAKE-OFF MASS OF 1111 KG flaps retracted Full throttle Pressure Altitude ft Climbing speed Climb rate ft / min KIAS -20 C 0 C 20 C 40 C SL NOTE: 1. Reduce mixture above 3000 ft to achieve maximum speed Fig. 5 -6 Maximum rate of climb June 2 /

7 CESSNA TIME REQUIRED FOR CLIMBING, FUEL CONSUMPTION AND DISTANCE Flaps retracted Full throttle Standard temperature TEMP C Pressure Altitude ft Climbing speed. KIAS rate of climb ft / min TIME MIN From MSL fuel. I remove SL,,,,,,,,,,,,, 44 43 Notes: 1. For starting, rolling and starting a fuel quantity of 4.2 l must be added 2. Mixture depleted above 3000 ft for maximum engine speed 3. For every 10 C above the standard temperature, the values ​​for time, fuel consumption and climb distance are to be increased by 10% 4. The specified distances apply when there is no wind Fig. 5-7 Time, fuel consumption and distance required for the climb NM 5-16 June 2/97

8 TRAVEL PERFORMANCE Take-off mass 1111 kg Recommended poor mixture at all altitudes (see Chapter 4, Cruise) Pressure 20 C BELOW STANDARD 20 C ABOVE altitude 1 / min STANDARD TEMP TEMPERATURE STANDARD TEMP ft% KTAS L / H% KTAS L / H% KTAS L / H, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 7 NOTE: 1 The cruising speeds given here apply to an aircraft equipped with cycling shoes. Reduce speeds by 2 kts for planes without cycling shoes. Fig. 5-8 Travel service (1 sheet of 2) June 2 /

9 CESSNA TRAVEL PERFORMANCE Take-off weight 1111 kg Recommended poor mixture at all altitudes (see Chapter 4, Cruise) Pressure 20 C BELOW STANDARD 20 C ABOVE altitude 1 / min STANDARD TEMP TEMPERATURE STANDARD TEMP ft% KTAS L / H% KTAS L / H% KTAS L / H ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 4 Note:,,,,,,,,, ,,, 1 1. The cruising speeds given here apply to an aircraft equipped with cycling shoes. Reduce speeds by 2 kts for planes without cycling shoes. Fig. 5-8 Travel service (2 sheets of 2) 5-18 June 2/97

10 RANGE 45 MINUTES RESERVE 201 L EXCELLENT FUEL Take-off weight 1111 kg Recommended poor mixture for cruising at all altitudes Standard temperature Without wind 12,000 10, CD: 0 X SL Range - NM 750 NOTE: 1. This diagram shows those for starting. Taxi, take-off and climb, the amount of fuel required and the route taken into account. 2. The services apply to an aircraft equipped with cycling shoes. The cycling shoes increase the travel speed by approx. 2 kts. Fig range June 2 /

11 CESSNA FLIGHT DURATION 45 MINUTES RESERVE 201L ELEVABLE FUEL Take-off mass 1111 kg Recommended poor mixture for cruising at all altitudes Standard temperature 12,000 10, CD.c X SEA MIRROR Flight time - hours NOTE: 1. In this diagram are those for starting, taxiing, take-off and The amount of fuel required as well as the climb time are taken into account. Fig. Duration of flight 5-20 June 2/97