What is a unique African problem
nine and a half extra - Africa
1. Wars and conflicts
3,000 ethnic groups live in Africa who speak over 2,000 different languages and have different traditions and cultures - and therefore also different opinions and interests. This often leads to arguments and conflicts. For example, in 2004 there were around 40 conflicts across Africa, one of which was the Hutu-Tutsi battle in Burundi.
More on the conflict between Hutu and Tutsi:
Hutu and Tutsi - Why the two ethnic groups are fighting each other
Hutu and Tutsi are two ethnic groups who live in Burundi, for example, and have been fighting each other for many years. Hutu originally means arable farmer and Tutsi ranchers. Most of the people in Burundi are Hutu - that is, arable farmers. There have always been serious arguments between the Hutu and the Tutsi. A civil war between them ended just under two years ago, in which over 300,000 people were killed.
More than 100 years ago, Europeans conquered Burundi and ruled the country. The conquerors claimed that Hutu and Tutsi are different peoples. They also said the Tutsi are worth more than the Hutu and should therefore have more power. Burundi gained independence almost 50 years ago. The Tutsi wanted to keep their power, which the Hutu found unjust. At the same time, the Tutsi were afraid that the Hutu might take revenge on them. The conflict got worse and worse until the Hutu and Tutsi eventually even killed each other - only because they were Hutu or Tutsi. Fortunately, the conflict has now ended peacefully. But almost a million people have fled their homeland because of the fighting between the Hutu and the Tutsi.
Many Africans flee the fighting and conflicts in their homeland to other regions or neighboring countries - which often leads to new conflicts. Because the countries and regions to which people are fleeing do not have enough food and fields to feed all refugees. When the refugees return to their homeland later, their houses are often destroyed by the fighting. And their arable land is now being used by other people - for example by their former neighbors or other refugees. But it is not just conflicts that drive many Africans to flight; poverty and the poor economic situation also make people leave their homes. More and more of them are even fleeing to other continents, such as Europe.
3. Economic problems
Africa was divided among European countries more than 100 years ago. The Europeans founded their own countries there, so-called 'colonies', and had plants grown there that cannot grow in Europe because of the cold and weather - for example coffee, tea, cocoa or cotton. Even today, when the African states are independent, only one or two plants are mainly grown in many countries - for trade with other countries. That is why many Africans are dependent on the trade in coffee, tea, cocoa and cotton. But it is precisely for these goods that the prices fluctuate very strongly. When prices are low, people in Africa get little money - and that is quite often the case.
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