What are the heart profile tests

Cardiologist. What does this specialist do, what studies do, what pathology treats? What diseases do heart surgery treat and in what symptoms are related, what heart surgery does

He is active in the surgical treatment of diseases of the heart and its vessels in cases where conservative (drug) treatment is not effective.

In addition, cardiac surgery carries out the necessary research and manipulation to clarify the diagnosis and the volume of the upcoming surgical procedure.

What is included in the competency of a cardiac surgeon

Cardiac surgery conducts operations in which congenital or acquired heart defects are corrected, aortic port-like maneuvering, a pacemaker inserted into a chest, etc.

Cardiac surgery studies the structure, function, heart disease and vessels, the causes of their event, the mechanisms of development, clinical manifestations, conduct diagnostics.

He also keeps track of the methods of treatment, prevention, and questions of medical rehabilitation of patients with lesions of the cardiovascular system.

What diseases are involved in cardiac surgery?

- cardiac arghmia;
- arterial hypertension;
- arterial hypotension;
- coronary atherosclerosis;
- atherosclerosis of vessels;
- hypertensive crisis;
- vegetative vascular dystonia;
- Heart attack;
- Coronary heart disease;
- cardialgia;
- cardiomyopathy;
- cardiosclerosis;
- collapse;
- stroke;
- pulmonary heart;
- myocardiodistrophy;
- cardiopsychoneurosis;
- pulmonary edema;
- pericarditis;
- congenital heart defects;
- vice of the captured heart;
- cardiac asthma;
- heart failure;
- vascular crises;
- angina region;
- endocarditis.

Which authorities do the doctor's cardiac surgery?

Heart, vessels.

When should I contact a cardiac surgeon?

The following general signs of heart disease can be distinguished:

Heartache,
- weak accelerated impulse,
- shortness of breath with little physical exertion,
- lethargy,
- Bad mood,
- irritability,
- despondency,
- poor sleep,
- Heartbeat,
- premature aging,
- unusually quick fatigue.

For patients with hypotension (reduced arterial pressure), swelling and face sheet are characteristic.

Blue-red (cyanosis) cheeks can be an indicator of diseases in the work of the mitral valve.

Hypertension can be suspected of having a red nose with blood vessels streaks.

In the case of insufficiency of the blood circulation of the heart or the respiratory organs, there is no common cyanosis, not only cheeks, but also forehead, and in addition, blemish or bluish lip color.

Approaching a hypertensive crisis (severe increase in blood pressure) may indicate a severely protruding temporal temple artery.

When the myocardial infarction approaches, the violation of the sensitivity and numbness of the skin area between the chin and lips is there.

Some signs of circulatory pathologies that require emergency care:

Superficial shortness of breath where the patient could not take a full breath;
- heavy leaves or an unusually red face;
- weakly tested but more frequent pulse;
- suddenly the "linked" look;
- the appearance of the unintended speech;
- the patient's inability to reply to the address addressed to him;
- loss of consciousness.

When and what tests do you have to do?

- LDH, LDH 1;
- AST, Alt;
- prothrombin index;
- coagulogram;
- cholesterol;
- fibrinogen;
- triglycerides;
- Alpha Lipoprother Cholesterol;
- electrolytes / k, na, ca, cl, mg /;
- Basic acid status.

What are the main types of diagnostics in cardiac surgery?

- electrocardiography;
- phonocardiography;
- angiocardiography;
- check cardiac cavities;
- echo doppler;
- Monitoring of EKG and blood pressure;
- Myocardial scintigraphy at rest and with training / single photon computed tomographic myocardial scintigraphy with Tallium;
- electro-physiological research;
- coronary divine work, kitic angioplasty and stenting;
- Emergency echocardiography. How can you keep the ships healthy?

Ships - an essential system of the human body. To feel good, the vessels are healthy. It's difficult to keep them in pristine shape, especially living in a big city. And yet there are several important tips.

In order for the blood vessels to be healthy, we need to breathe clean air. More often, you leave nature, are less likely to be in places where there is smoke. Smoke yourself if you have this habit.

Make up for it. Desperately add branches in food. They are especially tasty when adding yogurt. The BRAN binds unnecessary fats, which lowers blood cholesterol, which is exactly dangerous for ships.

We also eat raw vegetables and eat enough garlic. It is useful to eat the clove of garlic in the morning on an empty stomach and slowly chew it in your mouth. Of course, this procedure is not very pleasant, but it is very beneficial for our ships. If you have a sick stomach, the dose of garlic should be minimal, or you don't customize this item, then you need to consult with your doctor.

In the morning and before bedtime, eat 1 teaspoon of honey. Or dip it in a glass of warm water. This drink is also useful to add a lemon juice to.

Enter into physical culture. The one who is at your disposal. In physical exertion, blood circulation is improved, capillaries expand, in which the blood came with difficulty. More oxygen comes into organs and brain. There is also a contrasting shower on the vessels.
Watch your health!

Do not abuse strong tea and coffee. These drinks are characteristic of ships on the walls.

Take Askorutin vitamin twice a year. Course for 3-4 weeks. This complex includes vitamin C in combination with the routine. Which is very useful for ships.

The guarantee of good health is a good mood and optimism.

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Cardiology is an extensive branch of medicine involved in the study of the structure and functioning of the cardiovascular system.

The cardiovascular system includes such organs as:

  • The heart is a hollow muscle body that, thanks to the repetition of rhythmic cuts, provides blood flow through the blood vessels.
  • Vessels - tubular elastic formations of various diameters, after which blood moves through the body - from arteries, arterioles and capillaries from the heart to tissues and organs, in penules and veins of organs and tissues in the heart.

The activity of cardiologists includes:

  • study of the causes and mechanisms of the development of diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • study of the clinical manifestations of these diseases;
  • development of effective methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of human pathologies and vessels;
  • Medical rehabilitation of people with cardiovascular system lesions.

Cardiology doctors

The cardiologist is a broad profile specialist involved in all diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Since the pathology of the cardiovascular system is a fairly extensive group of diseases with different origins and a clinical picture, cardiologists have mastered narrower specialties.

Cardiologist, depending on the narrow specialization, can:

  • . This specialist is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of cardiac arrhythmias.
  • Cardiac surgery. This doctor specializes in the treatment of cardiac pathologies through an operative way.
  • . This cardiologist specializes in treating blood vessels (mainly large arteries) in the operative way. The treatment of aneurysms and malformations of the brain vessels is engaged in AngioEurochurgeon, and the treatment of pathologies of large blood vessels, the aortic and coronary arteries, are active in Cardioangiosurge.
  • . This doctor treats the pathologies of the venous vessels (in most cases it is venous limb vessels).
  • Surgeon-phlebologist - a specialist who treats diseases of the veins through an operative way.

Diseases of the cardiovascular system in children are on a child's cardiologist.

Thanks to the development of medical technologies, a new specialty of a cardiologist is an interventional cardiologist. This specialist diagnoses and treats cardiovascular disease with catheterization through the skin.

Arrhythmologist

The arrogant is a cardiologist who diagnoses, treats, and treats with the prevention of violations of the rhythm, frequency, and order of the abbreviations of the heart.

Depending on the department of the heart in which diseases are observed, all arrhythmias are divided into sinus, atrial and ventricular.

Arrhythmias focus on the heart rate in:

  • Tachycardia, in which the heart rate rises above 90 shots per minute. It can be both pathology and normal option (physiological tachycardia under load, stress, strong emotions).
  • Bradycardia, in which the heart rate is reduced to 50-30 shots per minute, as a result of lowering the automation of the sinus node (it provides coordination of the operation of different parts of the heart).
  • Paroxysmal violations of rhythm, which are characterized by the sudden onset of the increase in the increase in heartbeat abbreviations from 100 ° C / min (possibly a sudden end to the attack). Can cause the development of acute circulatory insufficiency.

In addition, the Arroga treats:

  • Extrasystole - premature depolarization and heart shortening or single cameras. This most common occurrence of arrhythmias is discovered in 60-70% of people. Extrasystoles are predominantly functional (neurogenic) signs, but can also have organic origins (cardiosclerosis, etc.).
  • Cleansing arrhythmia - violations of the normal rhythm of the heart, which is accompanied by chaotic and frequent (300-700 wt .- / min) excitation and degradation of atrium.

The arroga makes not only the arrhythmias themselves, but also pathologies that emphasize the development of violations of the heart rhythm. The cause of arrhythmia can be:

  • Hypertension, which increases the risk of ischemic heart disease. With high arterial pressure, the wall of the left ventricle thickens, which can provoke a change in the nature of the ventricular impulses.
  • Matral valve injury, causes a violation of valve function between the left atrium and the ventricle.
  • Heart disease. With congenital abnormalities in the development of the heart, arrhythmia develops more often than people with the absence of such a pathology. Some types of arrhythmias are congenital (Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, some forms of Religorak tachycardia, and elongated QT interval syndrome).
  • Ischemic heart disease is an absolute or relative impairment of the blood supply to the myocardium that develops with damage to coronary arteries.
  • Heart failure - syndrome that causes a decompensated violation of myocardial function.
  • Electrolytic diseases. Potassium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium are the basis for the appearance, maintenance, and delivery of an electrical pulse in the heart. Violations of the concentration of blood electrolyte levels and in heart cells can cause arrhythmias.
  • Thyroid Disease and Other Hormonal Disorders. In the case of a violation of the production of hormones, the metabolism in the body changes and reduces the heart irregularly and more often or more slowly.

Angiologist

Angiologist is a cardiologist who treats blood and lymph vessels.

This specialist handles:

  • atherosclerosis;
  • endarterita of the reversal type;
  • varicose veins of the lower extremities;
  • thrombophlebitis;
  • rEINO diseases;
  • phlebootromability;
  • lymphatic stasis;
  • systemic vasculites;
  • artezialtis of the giantheaker type;
  • bleeding from arteriovenous shunts;
  • arteriovenous anastomosis;
  • diabetic microangiopathy and macroangiopathy;
  • artesita Oaksa.

Phlebolog

Flabogo is a cardiologist who treats:

  • varicose veins;
  • thrombophlebitis;
  • phlebitis;
  • phlebootromability;
  • post-thrombotic diseases;
  • venous insufficiency;
  • bleeding from varicose veins;
  • trophic diseases.

Surgeon-cardiologist.

The cardiologist's surgeon is a doctor who surgically treats the pathology of the cardiovascular system.

Conditions that this specialist treats include coronary artery disease, malformations, etc.

Cardiologist surgeon directs:

  • bentalla operation with aortic aneurysm and aortic failure;
  • prosthetics and plastic from aortic valve with aortic money;
  • heart transplant, which is performed when it is impossible to get rid of the disease by other procedures;
  • coronary ranging with IHS (ischemic heart disease) performed on a working heart without stopping, etc.

Pediatric cardiologist

The children's cardiologist is a doctor who is proven by the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disorders, as well as diseases of connective tissue in children.

This specialist handles:

  • congenital and acquired heart defects;
  • vegetiovascular dystonias;
  • arrhythmias;
  • pericarditis, endocarditis, myocarditis;
  • blood pressure;
  • rheumatic diseases;
  • arthritis, collagenosis, osteoarthritis.

When consulting the children's cardiologist, you need to contact if:

  • the baby has a nasolabic triangle after a meal;
  • the child quickly gets tired of sucking the breast;
  • the child is weak;
  • the child has a swelling in the joints;
  • the child's heart rate exceeds 130 ° C.

Since the children of cardiac pathology who suffer from infectious diseases often develop, a child from 3 to 9 years old, the advice of the cardiologist is shown if:

  • there is shortness of breath or a feeling of lack of air;
  • there is quick fatigue even with minimal practice;
  • in a chronic form, tonsillitis flows;
  • planned faint;
  • in the heart of the heart there is an acute pain.

Since during the period of puberty the restructuring of the body can provoke the development of cardiac pathologies, it is necessary to consult with a child's cardiologist if:

  • puberty occurs faster than with colleagues;
  • the child leads a sedentary lifestyle and poorly tolerates older physical exertion.
  • the child complains of episodic pain in the left hand.

What does cardiologist treat?

Cardiologist treats:

  • acquired vices, including stenosis, structural defects and functioning of heart valves, autoimmune heart disease;
  • congenital heart defects - aortic pin stasis, heart-shaped defects;
  • hypertension;
  • ischemic heart disease;
  • Heart attack;
  • angina;
  • arrhythmia of any character;
  • aneurysms (thickening of the arterial wall);
  • inflammatory processes of the heart muscles (myocarditis, pericarditis);
  • heart failure;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • thrombophlebitis;
  • embolism.

When do you need to contact a cardiologist?

Consultation of the curling lodge is necessary if the patient is:

  • there was a sensation of tingling in the heart of the heart;
  • there is a severity and discomfort in the area of ​​the left chest or feeling that the umbilical pain given to the left blade and hand is felt;
  • there is a sharp sharp pain in the chest surface;
  • there is a fast or infrequent heartbeat;
  • there are breaks in the heart of the heart;
  • Yolk daughter appears during the exercise;
  • there is swelling of the legs;
  • there are frequent jumps in blood pressure;
  • often there is a feeling of lack of air;
  • often observed bait of headache or dizziness;
  • a feeling of fatigue quickly arises after a light load.

Stages of consultation.

The initial consultation with the cardiologist includes:

  • Examination of the patient's complaints and the collection of anamnesis, including family (clarifies the presence of heart disease in close relatives).
  • Measurement of blood pressure and pulse on both hands. The impulse is measured at rest and after squatting or other small physical activity.
  • Hear the heart with the help of a phonendoscope.
  • Growth and weight measurements to calculate the mass index (to check the incidence of obesity).
  • Appointment of a number of laboratory tests and additional surveys.

diagnosis

Diagnosis is made on the basis of:

  • general blood analysis;
  • general urinalysis;
  • blood biochemical analysis - it turns the level of direct and general bilirubin, branch, alt, alkaline phosphatase, urea, cholesterol (in general and with the calculation of the atherogenic index), glucose, etc .;
  • Echocardiography;
  • daily monitoring of blood pressure;
  • holter monitoring (sewage monitoring of the heart);
  • ventriculography for diagnosing myocardiopathy;
  • myocardial autoimmune destruction marker;
  • angiography;
  • cardiori (programs that assess the risk of developing cardiovascular disease for people after 40 years of age).

treatment

Methods of treating cardiovascular disease are selected by a cardiologist individually depending on the diagnosis, the severity of the disease and the severity of symptoms.

Apply for treatment of ships:

  • medication therapy;
  • cold treatment;
  • magnetic therapy;
  • local barotherapy;
  • therapeutic physical training course.

The following applies to the treatment of heart disease:

  • coronary dilatation;
  • coronary angiography with cardiac catheterization;
  • reconstructive operations for the elimination of heart defects, valve replacement;
  • aortic coronary artery rack;
  • laser treatment;
  • implantation of an electrocardiotimulator;
  • operations on large vessels;
  • balloon angioplasty;
  • electrophysiological methods;
  • installation of rhythm drivers.

Fundamentally new methods of treating diseases of the circulatory system include the use of stem cells so that you can restore the heart and blood vessels to cellular levels.

When treating diseases of blood vessels, you should adjust the diet under the guidance of the doctor.

Patients with cardiovascular pathologies should get rid of bad habits (smoking, etc.).

In this review it is more detailed if there are any signs that represent a cardiac surgery consultation with possible further operational treatment:

one). Heart disease can be expressed by such symptoms:

Heartache;

Lethargy;

Unusually tiredness quickly;

Shortness of breath nor small physical exertion;

Bad mood;

Poor sleep;

Premature aging;

Weak accelerated impulse;

2). For people who suffer from hypotension (chronically reduced blood pressure), usually distinctive features are puffy skin and pale complexion.

3). The likelihood of a hypertensive crisis approaching may indicate a severely protruding temporal artery.

four). About the approach of myocardial infarction can tell numbness of the skin area between the lips and chin.

five). Clinical cardiac surgery has conspicuous cases when immediate medical attention is required:

Sharply "linked".

The patient's inability to respond to language, which leads to it;

Superficial shortness of breath, in the presence, in the presence of which the patient cannot take a full breath;

- loss of consciousness of the patient;

The appearance of challenged, incoherent speech;

A strong flowery or unnaturally red face;

Weakly tested, but the pulse was fast.

In the presence of dates or similar symptoms, it is necessary to apply for professional help to heart surgery.

What tests need to be passed on to diagnose the disease?

The Russian heart surgeons prefer to use these tests to diagnose cardiovascular diseases:

Alpha Lipoprostema Cholesterol.

AST, alt.

Acid soil condition.

Coagulogram.

Ldh, ldh 1.

Protombia index.

Triglycerides.

Fibrinogen.

Cholesterol.

Electrolytes (k, na, ca, cl, mg).

It should be noted separately that modern cardiac surgery has the following diagnostic methods:

Electrocardiography.

Angiocardiography.

Grasping the cavities of the heart.

Balvanic Angioplasty, Coronary Art and Stenting.

Monitoring of EKG and blood pressure indicators.

Myocardial scintigraphy at rest and during the moments of physical activity (so-called single-photon-calculating tomographic myocardial scintigraphy with Thallia).

Phonocardiography.

In contact with

ODNOKLASSNIKI.

Cardiac Surgery is a doctor who specializes in treating heart disease with an operative way.

Heart surgery in some countries is called cardiac surgery (from Greek, thorax - chest).

With all the differences in title, this is the field of medicine that is at the crossroads of surgery and cardiology. And very closely related to vascular surgery.

Cardiac surgery treats congenital and acquired heart defects, large vessels, arrhythmias, ischemic disease, its complications, involved in the problems of heart transplantation, artificial heart development.
Cardiac surgery is necessary for man when conservative methods cannot cure his sick heart, and when they help, it is not enough.
For example, with ischemic heart disease. It occurs when the blood flow in the coronary vessels is disturbed. The heart muscle experience a thirst for oxygen and this manifests itself in the attacks of angina but can lead to myocardial infarction.
The most effective treatment for ischemic disease is surgery.

Heart Surgery Achievements

It is hard to believe now, but in 1890 the famous German doctor Theodore Bilrota said: "I will stop respecting the surgeon who will touch the heart of man."
He could not imagine that the surgeon's intervention in the work of the heart could help, and not harm, the patient.
Medicine has come a long way since then, and now it is developing particularly rapidly.

Operations on heart valves, installation of pacemakers, aortic pins, lengthening of the narrowed aorta with a metal frame (stenting) and even heart transplants - all of these can be heart surgery.

Professional problems

Cardiac surgery is a prestigious medical specialty around the world.
We also valued such doctors, but not from the state. The same can be said of domestic cardiac surgery and medicine as a whole. So far, the financial problems mean that our medicine cannot be developed as quickly as in other countries.

Workplace

Cardiac surgeons work in large specialized centers of cardiology and cardiovascular surgery, as well as in large multidisciplinary hospitals with relevant departments.

Important qualities

The profession of cardiac surgeon includes responsibility, the ability to give up even in hopeless situations, resistance to stress, physical endurance, a tendency to give up with hands, sensitive fingers, good intelligence, a tendency towards constant development.

Knowledge and skills

In addition to anatomy, physiology and other general medical disciplines, the cardiac surgeon should have a thorough understanding of the structure and functioning of the heart and blood vessels in order to know the clinical manifestations and methods of treating cardiovascular diseases in order to possess diagnostic techniques in be able to read an electrocardiogram, radiography, etc.
The profession of cardiac surgery means that the doctor knows how to work in the heart (planned and emergency), perform various manipulations - from surgical treatment of wounds to resuscitation.

You can get the profession of cardiac surgeon by graduating from medical university with a specialty "cardiac surgery" with a specialty "cardiac surgery" or bypassing the postgraduate preparations.

Cardiac surgery is a specialist doctor who fulfills the operative treatment of heart disease and its vessels, only in cases where conservative treatments are ineffective.

The work of cardiac surgery includes performing surgical operations in which the congenital and acquired heart defects are corrected, the CO anti-coronary rack is performed, the pacemaker is established in the chest and other operations.

The duties of the cardiac surgeon also include the study of the structure of functions, diseases of the heart and blood vessels, factors that determine their event, clinical manifestations, mechanisms of development. In addition, cardiac surgery is engaged in the rehabilitation of patients with lesions of the cardiovascular system.

What diseases does cardiac surgery treat?

First of all, it is worthwhile to denote in more detail that cardiac surgery treats the list of the most common diseases:

- vice of the captured heart;

- congenital heart defects;

In general, it is necessary to note that cardiac surgery performs the treatment of a fairly broad list of diseases of the cardiovascular system. So the main organs, in relation to which the activity of the cardiac surgeon is directed towards the heart and vessels.

Reply doctor cardiac surgery

What is an arteriogram?

The arteriogram is an x-ray shot that is taken after the dye is added to the blood to identify blockages.

My ten year old son has chest pain? Can this state any pathology?

Chest pain is an alarming symptom. Although there is usually no particular cause for concern, the gull pain behind the sternum, cardiac risk rhythm, or the painful shortness of breath from heart or lung disease can indicate.

I found the disease of the arteries. Should i keep your feet warm

If you suffer from peripheral vessels, which reduce blood flow to the limbs and can completely overlap, you can freeze the legs. Unfortunately, heating them only increases the need for oxygen. On the contrary, in the hospitals, the legs of such patients are deliberately kept in the cold. You should consult with your doctor, and after a thorough examination and analysis, appoint the necessary treatment.

Cardiac surgery is a surgeon doctor who eliminates the pathology of the cardiovascular system.

Cardiac surgeons are treated in cases where cardiovascular drug conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease is impossible or leads to disease progression.

Cardiac surgery (otherwise - cardiologist operation) belongs to the field of cardiology and surgery, and today it is considered one of the most effective methods of treating coronary heart disease, which makes it possible to prevent the development of myocardial infarction.

Cardiac surgeons usually work in large multi-pro course hospitals with dedicated offices or in centers of cardiology and cardiovascular surgery, which require special equipment and are equipped with modern intensive style medical equipment.

History of the development of cardiology

At the end of the 19th century, operations on the heart were not performed. Compared to traditional surgery, the foundations of which were laid by Hippocrates and Arab scientists Avicenna, the development of cardiac surgery, is possible due to the discovery of anesthesia and the development of medical technologies. Open heart surgery first began in the 1950s, and since then cardiac surgery began its rapid development.

The incentive for developing such a medical specialty as cardiac surgery was not only the development of medicine but also the high demand for cardiac surgery.

Heart disease statistics are constantly deteriorating. And this is due not only to the amount of death suffered from these diseases, but also a high mortality rate - according to the available data, more than half of all deaths fall from diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Types of Cardiac Surgical Operations

Doctors cardiac surgeons are most urgent after ischemic heart disease. You can highlight the main types of surgeries that cardiac surgeons around the world hold quite successfully. Among them:

  • Koronarack, which is recognized as the most effective method for ischemic heart disease. The progressive and safe method of this surgical intervention includes the method of the minimally invasive coronary sac. This implies cardiac surgery operation on a worker without stopping it. The main factor in the success of the shunt is a highly qualified cardiac surgeon who should be experienced in successfully performing a large number of similar surgeries;
  • Operations on the aortic valve shown in the aortic truck that include both plastic and the prosthetic of the aortic valve. Replacing the cardiac valve by cardiac surgeons is now largely replaced and universally developed. The new valve is installed either from a biological material (from a pig or horse heart tissue) or from a more practical metal, but after it is installed it is necessary to take anticoagulants (drugs that reduce blood);
  • The Bentalla operation, which doctors perform by cardiac surgeons in the event of an aneurysm of the ascending aorta with aortic deficiency;
  • Heart transplant that is used in the event of terminal heart failure when the state cannot be improved with traditional heart or conservative therapy operations.

Pediatric cardiac surgery

Children's cardiac surgery - in demand, in the elimination of congenital pathologies of the heart and vessels, which stop quite often (about 8 sick children for a thousand newborns). Modern heart surgery is especially effective in the first six months of life. The most successful are the operations of the children's cardiac surgeons to create new cardiac channels equipped with valves.

An important factor that determines the professionalism of the cardiac surgeon is their internship after graduating from university. For the children's cardiac surgeon, the best clinics for passage and internship are specialized medical institutions in Germany, the United States and Israel, whose doctors have vast experience in this field.

The heart surgeons at this center specialize in the surgical treatment of children with left-hearted hypoplace syndrome (critical heart disease), of whom 95 percent of children die in the first year of life. Pediatric cardiac surgeons at this center have not only achieved success in treating it, but also in adapting children post-operatively.

Today you can call steadily successful surgeries performed by the cardiac surgeons of the children with false essentiality of the infants.

How Do I Get a Cardiac Surgeon Profession?

To work in the profession of cardiac surgery, it is necessary to obtain a higher medical education in the specialty "therapeutic case", after which it is necessary to finish the interior and the withdrawal in the specialty "cardiac surgery".

With all its advantages, heart surgery is one of complex and very risky treatments. And this is primarily due to the professionalism of the cardiac surgeon, in addition to surgical skills, it is necessary to have analytical skills to weigh all possible risks and take advantage of the operation.

The success of the operation also depends on the cardiac surgeon's knowledge of many related medical specialties - functional diagnosis, anesthesiology, topographical anatomy.

The need for a great endurance cardiac surgeon and his ability to work in a team is linked to the duration of the operations (6-12 hours) as well as the fact that they require the work of a whole brigade of doctors, as a rule, no less than four people.

The personal qualities of the cardiac surgeon are usually imposed high demands, including:

  • Tendency to the natural sciences;
  • Stress tolerance;
  • Sound Health;
  • Responsibility;
  • The desire to help people;
  • Willingness to take a legitimate risk;
  • The accuracy of coordinating movements.

In contact with

Cardiologist- This is a doctor who reveals and treats heart diseases and vessels. The heart and blood vessels form a single cardiovascular system because together they perform one of the most important functions - supplying blood to the body. Violation of one department inevitably leads to violation of the other.

Cardiologists have the following narrow specialists:

  • arrhythmologist - treats the violation of the heart rhythm and restores the synchronicity of the work of all its departments.
  • cardiac surgery ( cardiovascular surgeon.) - This is a cardiologist who does open heart surgery.
  • attacking ( interventional) Cardiologist. - a doctor used to treat blood vessels, valves, and heart defects from "closed" intravascular or intraconal interventions ( invasive methods);
  • pediatric cardiologist - Known with the characteristics of the heart of the child under 18 years of age, reveals congenital heart defects and sends to the necessary specialist;
  • children's heart surgery- Performs open heart surgery on children with congenital heart defects.

What does the cardiologist do?

The cardiologist carries out diagnostics, treatment and prevention cardiovascular pathologies.. The cardiologist is also engaged in restoring heart functions when they are injured on diseases of other organs.

The work of the cardiologist is as follows:

  • timely identify and eliminate the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases;
  • prevent the development of heart disease ( primary prophylaxis.);
  • prevent the development of complications in the already emerging heart disease ( secondary prophylaxis.);
  • choose an appropriate treatment for a particular patient;
  • Regularly monitor the condition of patients who have undergone closed or open surgery;
  • maintain the patient's condition during rehabilitation after a heart attack or surgery.
The cardiologist treats the following diseases:
  • chronic ischemic heart disease ( angina);
  • secondary ( symptomatic) arterial hypertension;
  • congenital heart defects;
  • acquired heart defects;
  • infectious endocarditis;
  • extrasystole;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • heart blockers;
  • syndrome-WPW;
  • atherosclerosis aorta;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • intracrarian blood clots;
  • violation of fats ( dyslipidemimia.);
  • heart tumors.

Coronary heart disease

Ischemia ( from the Latin word "ischemia" - I delay blood) It is called insufficient blood supply to the organ. Ischemic heart disease develops with damage to coronary arteries that feed the heart muscle ( international name of the disease - "Coronary Arteries Disease"). The cause of the disease is an atherosclerotic narrowing, convulsive or vascular thrombosis. The main manifestation is the attacks of chest pain ( angina or breast toad).

Heart attack

Myocardial infarction is a severe form of ischemic heart disease in which the cells of the heart muscle die in a specific place and the scar is formed in their place.
Myocardial infarction develops when the feeding artery is completely blocked and the cells of the heart muscle do not receive blood for 30 minutes.

Heart failure

Heart failure is not a disease, but a condition in which the heart is unable to move blood in the desired volume and speed throughout the body. Heart failure occurs with the long flow of all heart diseases, as well as diseases of other organs, among which the load on the myocardium increases ( heart muscle).

Hypertonic disease

Hypertensive disease is a constant increase in blood pressure. The disease has a hereditary predisposition and manifests itself when a person is led by an unhealthy lifestyle - smokes, overweight, abuses alcohol, moves little, and has chronic stress.

Secondary ( symptomatic) Arterial hypertension

Symptomatic arterial hypertension ( hyper - over, tensio - tension, pressure) Is an increase in blood pressure, which is a symptom of another disease, that is, it has a specific reason ( in contrast to hypertensive disease).

Arterial hypertension most often arises for diseases of the following bodies:

  • kidney;
  • renal artery;
  • pituitary gland;

Congenital heart defects.

Congenital heart defects are abnormalities in the development of partitions and heart valves, as well as large vessels that emerge from or flow into the heart.

Congenital heart defects are of two types:

  • "White" vices of the heart(there is a skin sheet) - a defect of the intervention or presentation partition, open aortic canal, injection of the aorta, stenosis of the pulmonary artery;
  • "Blue" heart defects ( there is a shiny skin color) - Tetrad Fallo, Abstein anomaly, absence of a three-rolled valve, improper location of large cardiac vessels.

Acquired heart defects.

Acquired heart defects are a disruption in the structure and functions of the heart valves resulting from diseases that a person tolerates throughout life.

The main causes of the development of acquired heart defects are:

  • infectious endocarditis;
  • atherosclerosis of valves ( age-related changes).
Detected heart defects are manifested either by the narrowing of the valve hole ( stenosis) or its destruction ( error).

Myocarditis.

Myocarditis is inflammatory disease of the heart muscle. Inflammation of the myocardium occurs not only in a bacterial or viral infection, but also in allergic reactions and the effects of toxins on the heart muscle. Myocarditis has no characteristic symptoms just for him and often "disguised" for other diseases.

Infectious endocarditis.

Infectious endocarditis is an infectious inflammation of the inner lining of the heart ( endocardium), in which the vegetation is formed on the valves or subcarpact structures ( endocardial growth.), which gradually destroy the valve and lead to the formation of heart defects. The risk of vegetation is not limited to damaging the valve. Frames of endocardial growth can be broken, blood flow and arteries become clogged. Particularly dangerous embolism ( blockage of the vessel by the formation that brings the bloodstream) Brain ships.

Infective endocarditis can develop on operated valves on prosthetic valves or intracardiac devices ( "Umbrellas", electrodes).

Pericarditis.

Pericarditis is a contagious or non-infectious inflammation of the leaflets of the flatter pouch that holds the heart. Pericardi is often affected with allergic and autoimmune diseases, as well as with the accumulation of in the body toxins and the spread of metastases of malignant tumors.
The leaves have numerous vascular girls, so when the inflammation builds up in the pericardial cavity, the fluid often accumulates. After the liquid is drawn in, spikes can form between the leaves that the heart will not allow to expand and fill in blood.

Cardiomyopathy.

Cardiomyopathy is the defeat of the heart muscle, in which the expansion of the departments of the heart or the thickening of its walls is observed. In this case there are no objective reasons for such changes, i. H. Does the patient not recognize such a pathology as coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart defects, hypertensive diseases and other diseases, the causes of which are studied and installed.

Extrasystole

Extryyistol ( extra, except for systole reduction) Is a premature decrease in the heart that does not fit into the main rhythm ( reduction "not according to plan"). The extrasystole is caused by an unusual electrical pulse emanating from a sinus node ( rhythm driver) and from other "active" departments of the conductive heart system. Frequent appearance of the extrasystole is called extrasystole. A person may not feel the extrasystole, but most of the time it is felt as a sense of the heart's fifth. The cause of such a phenomenon can be heart disease or violation of the functions of other organs ( in this case, extrasystystole is just a "response" of the heart).

Tachycardia.

Tachycardia ( tachys - Fast, Cardio - Heart) Is a fast heart rhythm ( more than 100 shots per minute), which creates a sinus node or other "active" section of the atria or ventricles of the heart.

The reasons for the heartbeat faster, there can be not only heart diseases, but also all violations in the body, among which the "mobilization" of stress systems occurs. As a rule, all tachycardias have common symptoms - heartbeat, dizziness, fainting. It is possible to establish a type of tachycardia with an EKG (cardiogram) or electrophysiological research.

Cleansing the arrhythmia.

Cleaning arrhythmia ( synonymous - atrial fibrillation) Is a violation of the heart rhythm, in which is often observed ( 400 - 700 per minute) and a disorderly reduction of certain muscle and foreskin fibers. At the same time, each group of muscles wants "wishes" to ask its rhythm throughout the heart.

Cleansing arrhythmia can be constant or in the form of tachycardia attacks ( Heartbeat). The reasons for the flickering arrhythmia are diverse and can be associated with cardiac and extraordinary pathology.

Bradycardia.

Bradycardia ( bradys - slow, cardio - heart) - This is a breakdown of the heart rhythm of less than 60 cuts per minute. The slow rhythm is not always pathology. For example, on the trained person, the heart pushes more blood than normal in a reduction, so he does not need a fast rhythm of work. During yoga, the yoga rhythm is also slowed down. Bradycardia can be family ( this was observed in the Napoleon Bonaparte family). The pathological causes of bradycardia may be associated with changes in the heart ( blockade and arrhythmia.) or if you are exposed to emergency factors on the sinus node ( medicinal preparations, severe internal organs, tumors and concussion).

Blocker of the heart

Heart blocks are an injury ( slow or termination) The passage of the electrical impulse on the conductive system of the heart ( nerve cords). Blockages can occur in any section of the nerve heart fibers ( atrium, ventricle.). Many blockages cannot be felt or detected on the electrocardiogram as the nerve impulse finds workarounds to get to the right place. However, some blockages ( pop up especially suddenly) Can cause the heart to stop if the heart does not have time to "activate the rhythm backup driver".

WPW syndrome.

Under the strange name "WPW Syndrome" ( wolf Parkinson-White Syndrome) A condition is hidden in which the electrical impulse from the atrias is not in the usual way, but bypassed it. This phenomenon cannot be felt, it can only be fixed on an electrocardiogram. The danger, however, is that the presence of an additional path between the atrium and the ventricle creates a chance for the pulse to move continuously in a circle ( like a squirrel in a wheel). In this case the attacks of heartbeats can occur ( tachycardia.), Dizziness, heeling, and fainting.

Atherosclerosis aorta.

In atherosclerosis, an atherosclerotic plaque is formed in its wall ( cluster lipids), which reduces the lumen of the aorta. Usually, ailments associated with atherosclerosis aorta appear with age.

Aortic aneurysm.

Aortic aneurysm is called Bagask emissions of its wall or its expansion more than double double compared to the norm. With the expansion of the wall the aorta is thinner and the risk of its gap or bundle arises. Under the influence of impulse wave waves ( for example with high arterial pressure) There is damage to the inner shell of the aorta, especially if there is its atherosclerosis or inflammation.

Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is high pressure in the pulmonary artery ( departs from the right ventricle and heads to the Easy).

The reasons for the increasing pressure in the pulmonary artery are:

  • congenital and acquired heart defects;
  • lung and bronchi diseases;
  • weak reduction in left cardiac departments ( lack of left ventricle).

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary artery thromboembolism is the blockage of the lumen of its trunk or branches of blood occlusions that pass from the veins into the bloodstream or form in the right heart.

Intracardiac clomes.

The blood clots in the cavities of the heart are a complication of other cardiovascular diseases that create favorable conditions for blood clots to form in the heart. Such conditions arise when the inner lining of the heart is damaged ( infectious endocarditis.), a type of heart muscle is not reduced ( myocardial infarction, heart failure, flickering arrhythmia), there are foreign objects in the heart ( valve prostheses, electrode of the pacemaker).

Violation of fats ( dyslipidemia.)

Dyslipidemia ( load, lipos - fat, EMA - blood) Call high blood fat ( lipid), which cause atherosclerosis and the low content of lipids that protect the vascular wall from atherosclerosis.

Tumors of the heart

About 80 - 90% of all heart tumors form benign tumors. Of these, the most commonly found is mixoma of the left atrium, which has a leg and resembles a polyp. Myxomas hang in the left atrial cavity and can create an obstruction to blood flow from the atrium into the ventricle. Mixoma particles can be broken, carrying blood flow, and clogging the space between different arteries ( mostly brain).

Malignant heart tumors are rare, damage to the pericardia is usually observed ( pericarditis.) if distributed ( metastasis) Malignant cells from other organs.

Heart tumors are not characteristic, only symptoms for them, they "mask" other heart diseases ( arrhythmia, heart failure, heart disease, myocardial infarction).

What symptoms turn to the cardiologist?

Consultation with the cardiologist is necessary in all cases of the appearance of unpleasant sensations, not only in the heart of the heart, but also in any other chest scan ( especially for the chest). In other words, you need to go to the cardiologist when the heart is "feeling itself." However, there is the category of patients who certainly need to be examined by the cardiologist, even if they have no complaints. First of all, these are people who suffer from diabetes ( can not feel pain in the development of the heart attack) and a hereditary predisposition to heart disease and blood vessels ( cases of heart attacks and strokes among relatives).

Symptoms You Should Contact the Cardiologist with

symptomOrigin MechanismWhat studies are being carried out on the causes of diagnosis?To which diseases occur?
Chest and heart pain / discomfort when walking
  • violation of blood flow due to narrowed coronary arteries;
  • deterioration in the nutrition of the heart muscle;
  • formation of thrombus in the coronary artery;
  • small artery compression;
  • low levels of oxygen in the blood.
  • electrocardiography;
  • echocardiography;
  • tREDMIL test;
  • stress echocardiography;
  • coronary angiography;
  • myocardial scintigraphy;
  • triponin, MV-KFK, AST, LDH-1);
  • blood sugar analysis;
  • analysis for urea, creatinine and liver enzymes.
  • coronary heart disease ( angina);
  • Heart attack;
  • pulmonary hypertension.
Pain / discomfort in the chest and heart of the heart
  • convulsive coronary artery;
  • improving the sensitivity of the nervous system to impulses coming from the heart;
  • inflammation of the heart muscle.
  • electrocardiography;
  • echocardiography;
  • tREDMIL test;
  • stress echocardiography;
  • coronary angiography;
  • daily monitoring of the EKG holter;
  • expressive electrical stimulation of the heart;
  • myocardial scintigraphy;
  • cardiac catheterization and angioadiography;
  • radioscopy of the chest organs;
  • cT scan;
  • positron emission tomography;
  • myocardial biopsy;
  • lipidogram;
  • coagulogram;
  • analysis for myocardial damage markers ( triponin, MV-KFK, AST, LDH-1);
  • Nt-probnp.);
  • blood for sterility sowing;
  • general blood analysis;
  • blood sugar analysis;
  • analysis for urea, creatinine and liver enzymes.
  • coronary heart disease;
  • heart failure;
  • heart failure;
  • myocardites;
  • infectious endocarditis;
  • pericarditis;
  • heart failure;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • hypertonic disease;
  • atherosclerosis aorta;
  • aortic aneurysm;
Dyspnea / boss
  • blood stagnation in pulmonary veins with worsening of the heart section;
  • admission to the blood brain with a low amount of oxygen causes stimulation of the respiratory center and makes breathing more expensive.
  • electrocardiography;
  • echocardiography;
  • tREDMIL test;
  • stress echocardiography;
  • coronary angiography;
  • daily monitoring of the EKG on the holder;
  • cardiac catheterization and angioadiography;
  • cleaning echocardiography;
  • myocardial scintigraphy;
  • myocardial biopsy;
  • cT scan;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • positron emission tomography;
  • myocardial biopsy;
  • lipidogram;
  • coagulogram;
  • analysis for myocardial damage markers ( triponin, MV-KFK, AST, LDH-1);
  • analysis on a sodium refinery peptide ( Nt-probnp.);
  • blood for sterility sowing;
  • general blood analysis;
  • blood sugar analysis;
  • coronary heart disease;
  • Heart attack;
  • heart failure;
  • heart failure;
  • myocarditis;
  • infectious endocarditis;
  • tachycardia;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • bradycardia;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • heart blockers;
  • aortic aneurysm;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • heart tumors.
High blood pressure
  • narrowing of vessels due to spasm or atherosclerosis;
  • an increase in the amount of fluid that circulates through vessels;
  • strengthening the abbreviations of the heart.
  • electrocardiography;
  • echocardiography;
  • daily monitoring of blood pressure;
  • radioscopy of the chest organs;
  • cT scan;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • lipidogram;
  • general blood analysis;
  • blood test for glucose, urea, creatinine and potassium.
  • hypertonic disease;
  • atherosclerosis aorta;
  • secondary arterial hypertension.
Low blood pressure
  • expansion of ships due to loss of sound;
  • dehydration of the body;
  • decrease in the capacity of the heart muscle to contract.
  • electrocardiography;
  • echocardiography;
  • tREDMIL test;
  • stress echocardiography;
  • coronary angiography;
  • daily monitoring of the EKG on the holder;
  • daily monitoring of blood pressure;
  • cardiac catheterization and angioadiography;
  • intracardiac electrophysiological research;
  • expressive electrical stimulation;
  • cleaning echocardiography;
  • myocardial scintigraphy;
  • myocardial biopsy;
  • chest radiography;
  • cT scan;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • positron emission tomography;
  • myocardial biopsy;
  • lipidogram;
  • coagulogram;
  • analysis for myocardial damage markers ( triponin, MV-KFK, AST, LDH-1);
  • analysis on a sodium refinery peptide ( Nt-probnp.);
  • general blood analysis;
  • blood sugar analysis;
  • analysis of urea, creatinine, potassium and liver enzymes.
  • Heart attack;
  • heart failure;
  • myocardites;
  • pericarditis;
  • tachycardia;
  • bradycardia;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • heart blockers;
  • heart tumors.
Heartbeat
  • increasing heart rate ( more than 90 shots per minute);
  • increased sensitivity to "severe" heart disease.
  • electrocardiography;
  • daily monitoring of the EKG on the holder;
  • echocardiography;
  • daily monitoring of blood pressure;
  • tREDMIL test;
  • coronary angiography;
  • cardiac catheterization and angioadiography;
  • radioscopy of the chest organs;
  • cT scan;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • lipidogram;
  • coagulogram;
  • analysis for myocardial damage markers ( triponin, MV-KFK, AST, LDH-1);
  • analysis on a sodium refinery peptide ( Nt-probnp.);
  • blood for sterility sowing;
  • general blood analysis;
  • blood sugar analysis;
  • analysis of urea, creatinine, potassium and liver enzymes.
  • coronary heart disease ( angina);
  • Heart attack;
  • heart failure;
  • hypertonic disease;
  • vice of the heart
  • myocarditis;
  • infectious endocarditis;
  • pericarditis;
  • tachycardia;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • heart tumors.
"Interruptions" in the work of the heart
  • the emergence of extraordinary cardiac abbreviations;
  • "Break" in the work of the heart with blockages.
  • electrocardiography;
  • echocardiography;
  • tREDMIL test;
  • stress echocardiography;
  • daily monitoring of the EKG on the holder;
  • daily monitoring of blood pressure;
  • radioscopy of the chest organs;
  • cT scan;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • lipidogram;
  • coagulogram;
  • analysis for myocardial damage markers ( triponin, MV-KFK, AST, LDH-1);
  • analysis on a sodium refinery peptide ( Nt-probnp.);
  • blood for sterility sowing;
  • general blood analysis;
  • blood sugar analysis;
  • analysis of urea, creatinine, potassium and liver enzymes.
  • angina;
  • Heart attack;
  • heart failure;
  • hypertonic disease;
  • secondary arterial hypertension;
  • heart failure;
  • myocardites;
  • pericarditis;
  • extrasystole;
  • tachycardia;
  • bradycardia;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • heart tumors.
Weakness, rapid fatigue
  • oxygen starvation of the entire organism due to the reduced pumping function of the heart;
  • chronic inflammation, exhausted organism;
  • insufficient build-up of blood oxygen in the lungs.
  • electrocardiogram;
  • echocardiography;
  • coronary angiography;
  • cardiac catheterization and angioadiography;
  • radioscopy of the chest organs;
  • myocardial biopsy;
  • general blood analysis;
  • blood test for glucose;
  • blood test for urea, creatinine, potassium and liver enzymes;
  • lipidogram;
  • coagulogram;
  • blood for sterility sowing;
  • analysis for myocardial damage markers ( triponin, MV-KFK, AST, LDH-1);
  • analysis on a sodium refinery peptide ( Nt-probnp.).
  • heart failure;
  • heart failure;
  • infectious endocarditis;
  • myocarditis;
  • pericarditis;
  • pulmonary hypertension.
Swimming or dizziness
  • sharp drop in heart rate ( less than 40 shots per minute), this causes the brain to get less blood than necessary in one minute;
  • the narrowing of the heart valves, which creates an obstruction on the blood of the blood from the heart to the brain;
  • insufficient enrichment of blood oxygen with congenital heart defects.
  • electrocardiography;
  • echocardiography;
  • cardiac catheterization and angioadiography;
  • daily monitoring of the EKG on the holder;
  • radiography of the chest organs;
  • general blood analysis;
  • blood test for glucose, urea, creatinine, potassium and liver enzymes;
  • coagulogram;
  • cT scan;
  • magnetic resonance imaging.
  • tachycardia;
  • bradycardia;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • heart blockers;
  • vice of the heart
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • heart tumors ( mixoma).
to cough
  • blood stagnation in lungs and irritation of bronchi, while the pump function of the heart lowers;
  • Crossing the bronchi-enlarged left atrium or pericardium.
  • electrocardiography;
  • echocardiography;
  • cardiac catheterization and angioadiography;
  • radioscopy of the chest organs;
  • cT scan;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • general blood analysis;
  • coagulogram;
  • analysis on a sodium refinery peptide ( Nt-probnp.).
  • heart failure;
  • aortic aneurysm;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • heart failure;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • heart tumors.
Hemochok
  • break small capillaries in the lungs due to high pressure in the pulmonary artery;
  • blockage of the pulmonary artery thrombus from the right departments of the heart;
  • Elevation swelling and respiration Erythrocytes from vessels in small bronchi.
  • electrocardiogram;
  • echocardiography;
  • radioscopy of the chest organs;
  • cardiac catheterization;
  • ultrasound examination of vessels;
  • cT scan;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • coagulogram;
  • general blood analysis;
  • analysis on a sodium refinery peptide ( Nt-probnp.).
  • heart failure;
  • heart failure;
  • aortic aneurysm;
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • heart tumors.
Branch
  • blood stagnation in the veins of the lower extremities, while reducing the pumping function of the heart.
  • electrocardiography;
  • echocardiography;
  • radioscopy of the chest organs;
  • cleaning echocardiography;
  • myocardial biopsy;
  • cardiac catheterization and angioadiography;
  • general blood analysis;
  • coagulogram;
  • analysis on the nodium technical peptide
  • (Nt-probnp.).
  • heart failure;
  • heart failure;
  • myocardites;
  • pericarditis;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • heart tumors.

What studies does a cardiologist do?

The reception of the cardiologist begins with interviewing patient complaints. Even during a conversation with a patient, a cardiologist can make a rough diagnosis, as many complaints are very characteristic of one disease or another. Information about the lifestyle patient is important ( harmful habits, physical activity), the presence of inheritance ( heart disease in relatives), other illnesses that the patient has suffered in the past or is currently experiencing.

According to the respondent, the cardiologist measures blood pressure and listens to the heart with a stethoscope. Electrocardiography and echocardiography will also be performed during the first visit to the cardiologist. If necessary, additional analysis and research are appointed.

Research that keeps a cardiologist

studyWhich diseases show?How is it held?
Electrocardiography
(Ekg)
  • coronary heart disease ( angina);
  • Heart attack;
  • heart failure;
  • extrasystole;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • tachycardia;
  • bradycardia;
  • heart blockers;
  • wPW syndrome;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • myocardites;
  • pericarditis;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • pulmonary embolism.
Alternating electrodes are placed on the skin of the heart in the area of ​​the heart, four more in the area of ​​the forearm and ankles, after which the electrical activity of the heart is recorded in the form of an electrocardiogram.
Echocardiography
(Ehoche.)
  • coronary heart disease;
  • Heart attack;
  • heart failure;
  • congenital heart defects;
  • acquired heart defects;
  • myocardites;
  • infectious endocarditis;
  • pericarditis;
  • intracrarian blood clots;
  • atherosclerosis aorta;
  • aortic aneurysm.
  • heart tumors;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • heart tumors.
The study is performed with the patient lying on the left side. The ultrasonic sensor is installed above the heart area and explore the structure, reducing the heart and blood flow through the valves in the usual mode and the mode of the Doppler.
TREDMIL test.
  • coronary heart disease ( angina);
  • Heart attack;
  • heart failure;
  • extrasystole;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • tachycardia;
  • bradycardia;
  • blocks of heart.
The patient walks along the track ( it's walking, not running), and their speed and incline gradually increase. The electrocardiogram and blood pressure are continuously recorded during the test. The purpose of the study is to determine the connection of heart complaints with physical activity. You can use the exercise bike instead of the track.
Stress echocardiography with dobutamine
  • coronary heart disease;
  • angina;
  • Heart attack;
  • heart failure.
The study is carried out by echocardiography. Dobutamine is then administered intravenously using an automatic drip device ( the drug stimulates the work of the heart) And repeat the echocardiography again.
Daily monitoring of EKG on Holter
  • coronary heart disease ( angina);
  • extrasystole;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • tachycardia;
  • bradycardia;
  • heart blockers;
  • wPW syndrome.
The electrodes that record the heart's electrical activity are attached to the chest, and the recorder itself is attached to the belt on the body. Within 24 hours the patient lives his usual life and his records in the diary, what exactly did he meet during the day, at what time the complaints arose. Data from the registrar runs through the computer processing and a heart rate disturbance report is issued.
Daily blood pressure monitoring
  • hypertonic disease;
  • secondary ( symptomatic) Arterial hypertension.
The oscillation of blood pressure is recorded using a conventional cuff that is affixed to a patient's "dysfunctional" hand which is periodically inflated under the control of the microprocessor. The data is recorded on the device, which is attached to the belt on the body, which, after the study, transmits data to the computer for decryption. During the day, the patient keeps a diary in which he notes changes in well-being, sleep time, work and other events.
Radiography of the chest organs
  • heart failure;
  • acquired heart defects;
  • congenital heart defects;
  • heart tumors;
  • atherosclerosis aorta;
  • aortic aneurysm;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • pulmonary embolism.
The study of the shadow of the heart and the state of the lungs is carried out in the standing position in various projections ( straight, left and right side).
Coronary angiography
  • coronary heart disease ( angina);
  • Heart attack.
The study is carried out in the position of the patient lying on the diagnostic table in the X-ray operating room. Special catheters ( tube) Through the skin it is injected into the femoral or shoulder artery and takes to the aorta. After that, the X-ray repeat substance is inserted alternately in the right and left coronary arteries, and an image of the cardiac vessels appears on the monitor screen.
Intricultural electrophysiological research.
  • extrasystole;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • tachycardia;
  • bradycardia;
  • heart blockers;
  • wPW syndrome.
It is performed in the patient's position on the desk in the X-ray operating room. A special catheter with the registration of electrodes is inserted through the shoulder vein, a connective or femoral vein and brought into the correct heart. According to their location, the electrical activity of different parts of the heart is recorded in the form of an electron.
Cleaning electrical pile stimulation
  • extrasystole;
  • cleaning the arrhythmia;
  • tachycardia;
  • bradycardia;
  • heart blockers;
  • wPW syndrome;
  • coronary heart disease ( angina).
Output in the patient's position lying or sitting. A catheter with a registration electrode is inserted through the nose or mouth in the esophagus to a depth of 45 cm, which is installed at the level of the atrium. After that, the stimulus begins to flow to reduce the heart, and the frequency of stimulation gradually increases.
Cleaning the echocardiography
  • coronary heart disease;
  • Heart attack;
  • heart failure;
  • congenital heart defects;
  • acquired heart defects;
  • myocardites;
  • infectious endocarditis;
  • pericarditis;
  • intracrarian blood clots;
  • atherosclerosis aorta;
  • aortic aneurysm.
  • heart tumors;
  • cardiomyopathy.
The study is performed with the patient lying on the left side. A special tube is inserted through the mouth onto the esophagus, at the end of which there is an ultrasonic sensor. By changing the position of the sensor, the echo image of the heart is obtained in different planes, exploring the blood flow in the heart.
Cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography
  • Heart attack;
  • heart failure;
  • heart failure;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • aortic aneurysm;
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • heart tumors.
The patient lies on his back in the X-ray control room. The catheter with a spray can be inserted into a plug-in vein when you need to go into the right heart and pulmonary artery, or the femoral artery when you need to explore the left heads and aorta.
Myocardial scintigraphy.
  • coronary heart disease;
  • Heart attack;
  • heart failure;
  • cardiomyopathy.
The study takes place in the position of the patient lying on the diagnostic table. Intravenously, a radio preparation introduces a labeled technetium or waist atom that accumulates in myocardium. The radiation from labeled atoms is recorded using a gamma chamber that rotates around the patient.
Ultrasound examination of vessels
(duplex)
  • atherosclerosis;
  • aortic aneurysm.
The study is carried out in two modes at the same time.The two-dimensional mode gives the image and the Doppler mode is the color designation of the blood flow in the vessels. During the study, the patient usually lies down, as a rule, if necessary, an interesting limb is bent or raised.
Sphigmography
(pulse wave velocity registration)
  • atherosclerosis of large arteries.
During the study, the patient is in the supine position, in the study of the carotid artery, the neck must be on the same level with the torso, and in the examination of the femoral artery, the foot should be straightened and the dust turned slightly. A special registration sensor, which is mounted above the vessel, converts the mechanical vibrations of the arterial wall into electrical ones and writes them in the form of a diagram.
Magnetic resonance imaging.
  • aortic aneurysm;
  • coronary heart disease;
  • angina;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • diseases of the pericardium;
  • heart failure;
  • aortic aneurysm;
  • heart tumors;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • intracrarian blood clots;
  • heart tumors.
The study is carried out in the patient lying on the diagnostic position, which is carried out in the process of research in the tomograph. During the study, a contrast substance is introduced intravenously ( gadolinium).
CT scan
  • coronary heart disease;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • heart tumors;
  • pericarditis;
  • congenital heart defects;
  • acquired heart defects;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • aortic aneurysm;
  • intricultural brackets.
During the study, the patient lies on the diagnostic in a round scanner. At the same time, an iodine-containing contrast agent is administered intravenously. In order to study the heart in a certain phase, the study is synchronized with the electrocardiography.
Positron emission tomography
  • coronary heart disease;
  • Heart attack.
The study uses short-lived isotopes that, with intravenous administration, accumulate in living cells of the heart muscle.
Miocardium biopsy.
  • myocardites;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • heart tumors.
Heart muscle biopsy ( primathed fence tissue) It is done with a bioptome that has forceps on the end. The patient lies on his back in the X-ray control room. The doctor uses the catheter to conduct a biopsy in a closed form along with the catheter into the right or left heads of the heart through a subcleavic vein or femoral artery, points the forceps and cuts off the myocardial section.

What laboratory tests are prescribed by a cardiologist?

First of all, the cardiologist should find out whether the patient's complaints are related to the pathology of the heart, or they arise as a reaction from the heart to the disease of another organ. This is accompanied by a set of special analyzes called the cardiological profile.

Cardiology profile.

With the help of a cardiological profile ( group of analyzes.) A cardiologist will learn about the possible recent damage to the heart muscles and assess the risk of heart attack in the future.

Analyzes of the cardiac profile are prescribed under the following diseases:

  • increased blood pressure;
  • angina region ( chronic ischemic heart disease);
  • arrhythmias;
  • tachycardia and bradycardia;
  • atherosclerosis of vessels ( aortas, lower extremities);
  • brain ship diseases ( stroke);
  • suffered after myocardial infarction.
The cardiac profile includes biochemical blood tests. Blood from veins is required for the biochemical analysis, so blood from the finger is not suitable for the study ( from the finger you can only take the capillary blood). Blood is given to an empty stomach after a 12-hour fast in the morning. 30 minutes before the analysis it is impossible to smoke, actively move and be nervous.

Heart profile tests.

indexstandardWhen does it rise?When do fall fall?
Lipidogram
Common cholesterol levels)
  • atherosclerosis;
  • family injuries;
  • rest of the bile in the liver;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • hypothyroidism);
  • increased generations of corticosteroids in adrenal glands.
  • severe liver disease ( cirrhosis, active hepatitis, liver cancer);
  • long fasting or insufficient consumption of fat;
  • violation of the suction of fats in the intestine.
Low density lipoprotein cholesterol
(Xs lpnp.)
)
High density lipoprote cholesterol
(Xs lpvp.)
more than 1.2 mmol / l ( or more than 46 mg / dl)
  • regular high physical activity;
  • receiving some drugs ( insulin, statins, fibrates, contraceptives that contain estrogen);
  • chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver.
  • high blood triglycerides;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • consumption of a large amount of carbohydrates;
  • acute infections;
Triglycerides)
  • family violations of lipid metabolism;
  • liver disease;
  • stagnation of bile;
  • coronary heart disease;
  • Heart attack;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • lowering the function of the thyroid gland ( hypothyroidism);
  • kidney disease;
  • increased production of corticosteroids in adrenal glands;
  • drugs ( concorp, contraceptive tablets with estrogens, diuretics);
  • hereditary violations of lipid exchange;
  • chronic lung diseases;
  • impaired suction in the intestines;
  • severe liver disease;
  • increase in thyroid function ( hyperthyroidism);
  • increase in the function of the parachitoid gland ( hyperparathyroidism);
  • drugs ( heparin, vitamin C, contraceptive tablets with progesterone).
Coagulogram(blood coagulation analysis.)
Clotting time. 5 - 10 minutes
  • heparin treatment;
  • aspirin treatment;
  • liver disease;
  • uRMIA.
  • receiving contraceptive means;
  • bleeding.
Eighth v.
(activated partial thromboplastin time)
35 - 45 seconds
  • heparin treatment ( used as a test to control the effects of heparin).
Promrombin. 12-18 seconds
  • receiving warfarin;
  • liver disease;
  • vitamin K;
  • healthy lack of blood clotting factors.
  • in addition to the formation of thromboma.
N.
(international normalized relationship, inr)
0,8 – 1,15
Fibrinogen 2 - 4 g / l
  • Heart attack;
  • kidney inflammation;
  • reception of heparin, contraceptive tablets with estrogen;
  • rheumatism, systemic red lupus, and other connective tissue diseases;
  • infectious diseases;
  • postoperative period;
  • pregnancy;
  • malignant tumors.
  • bleeding;
  • reception heparin, phenobarbital, anabolic steroids, hormones ( androgen), Fish fat, valproic acid;
  • liver disease;
  • prostate cancer ( with metastases in the bone marrow).
D-dimer. 500 ng / ml)
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • intracrarian blood clots;
  • thrombosis of deep veins of the lower extremities;
  • smoking, coffee abuse;
  • thrombolytic therapy ( destruction of thromba.);
  • malignant neoplasms;
  • pancreatitis;
  • injury and surgical intervention;
  • severe infection;
  • pregnancy;
  • liver disease.
Marker ( signs) Myocardial damage
Triponins
(highly sensitive)
The minimum permissible values ​​can vary depending on the laboratory
  • Heart attack;
  • myocarditis;
  • angina;
  • heart failure;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • pulmonary embolism.
  • has no diagnostic value.
MB-KFK.
(MB Creatine Phosphokinease Fraction)
5 - 25 u / l
  • Heart attack;
  • myocarditis;
  • angina;
  • tachycardia;
  • after coronary angiography and defibrillation.
  • has no diagnostic value.
Asat
(asparaginic aminotransferase.)
up to 171 units / l
  • Heart attack;
  • myocarditis;
  • liver disease.
  • has no diagnostic value.
LDH-1.
(lactate dehydrogenase-1.)
72 - 182 ME / L
  • Heart attack;
  • myocarditis;
  • heart failure;
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • liver disease;
  • myocarditis;
  • inflammatory process in the body;
  • after heavy physical exertion;
  • after coronary angiography or defibrillation.
  • has no diagnostic value.
Heart markers.
Nt-probnp.
(brain sodium scientific peptide)
0-125 pg / ml
  • chronic heart failure.


The need to do all the analysis of the cardiology profile does not always arise. The cardiologist can assign several of the most necessary analyzes. Such analyzes are included in cardiac screening - a prophylactic test of blood to determine the risk of heart disease.

Cardioris screening includes the following tests:

  • general cholesterol ( How.);
  • low density lipoprotein cholesterol ( Xs lpnp.);
  • high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( Xs lpvp.);
  • triglycerides ( Day);
  • fibrinogen;
  • C-jet protein ( highly sensitive);
  • prothrombin;
  • potassium, sodium, chlorine.

General blood analysis.

The whole blood test is not directly linked to heart disease, but in some cases it does help determine the cause of patient complaints. For analysis, take blood from a finger with a special needle.

The cardiologist will prescribe a general blood test to identify the following change:

  • increase the number of leukocytes, accelerating SOE - inflammatory reaction observed with myocardial infarction, myocarditis, pericardia, infectious endocarditis;
  • decrease in the amount of hemoglobin ( anemia) - can be the cause of arrhythmias and oxygen starvation of the heart muscle;
  • simultaneous reduction in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin - is a sign of bleeding and anemia, which also causes the heart to react;
  • an increase in the number of red blood cells - observed in the body's chronic thirst for oxygen ( lung disease, nasal rain disorder) to which the heart arrhythmia responds.

Blood chemistry

It is mandatory to analyze blood sugar, since diabetes accelerates the development of atherosclerosis of heart vessels. To exclude the pathology of the liver and kidney, as well as control the side effects of cardiological drugs, a cardiologist prescribes the blood test for urea, creatinine, potassium and liver enzymes ( Alat, Asat.).

It is possible to check blood sugar levels by drawing blood from your finger or from a vein ( more detailed analysis). The remaining tests can only be done with the help of blood sugar from veins.

Blood for sterility sowing

Sowing blood to sterility is prescribed to eliminate or clarify the presence of infectious endocarditis, which can flow without clear manifestations.

Blood fence for blood analysis on sterility is carried out as follows:

  • blood is absorbed before antibiotic treatment;
  • if the patient is already taking antibiotics to start the analysis for three days, they will be canceled ( if the patient's condition allows);
  • blood blood is taken for analysis;
  • blood is taken three times with an interval of 60 minutes as the microbes enter the blood "portions".
The growth of microbes is determined within 48-72 hours, after which they necessarily determine the sensitivity of pathogens to antibiotics.

What diseases does a cardiologist treat?

The scope of the activity of the cardiologist includes not only heart diseases, but also diseases of the vessels. For treatment, drugs can be used, closed interventions with a catheter ( invasive methods) And open heart surgery.

Methods of treating heart disease and blood vessels

illnessBasic treatments.Approximate duration of treatmentforecast
Coronary heart disease
(angina)
  • change lifestyle. - Diet with fat restriction, moderate physical activity, smoking deposition, moderate alcohol consumption;
  • medicia treatment - Nitroglycerin preparations ( cardicket, monosorb.aspirin, clopidogrel.), Drugs that reduce the need for myocardium in oxygen ( nativate, Conforder.), Preparations that improve metabolism in myocardium ( provisionally), Preparations that slow down the process of atherosclerosis (