What is the mass transfer for heat

DE19936380A1 - Orderly packing for heat and material exchange - Google Patents

Orderly packing for heat and mass transfer

info

Publication number
DE19936380A1
DE19936380A1DE1999136380DE19936380ADE19936380A1DE 19936380 A1DE19936380 A1DE 19936380A1DE 1999136380 DE1999136380 DE 1999136380DE 19936380 ADE19936380 ADE 19936380ADE 19936380 A1DE19936380 A1DE 19936380 A1DE
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
layer
pack
packing
ordered
area
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE1999136380
Other languages
English (en)
Inventor
Gerd Kaibel
Manfred Stroezel
Achim Stammer
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
BASF SE
Original assignee
BASF SE
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation
Application filed by BASF SEfiledCriticalBASF SE
Priority to DE1999136380priorityCriticalpatent / DE19936380A1 / de
Publication of DE19936380A1publicationCriticalpatent / DE19936380A1 / de
First worldwide family litigation filedlitigationCriticalhttps: //patents.darts-ip.com/? Family = 7916936 & utm_source = google_patent & utm_medium = platform_link & utm_campaign = public_patent_search & patent = DE19936380 (A1) "Global patent litigation dataset" by Darts-ipons licensed under Attribution 4.0 License.
Withdrawnlegal-statusCriticalCurrent

Left

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Classifications

    • F — MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28 — HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28C — HEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT WITHOUT CHEMICAL INTERACTION
    • F28C3 / 00 — Other direct-contact heat-exchange apparatus
    • F28C3 / 06 — Other direct-contact heat-exchange apparatus, the heat-exchange media being a liquid and a gas or vapor
    • F28C3 / 08 — Other direct-contact heat-exchange apparatus the heat-exchange media being a liquid and a gas or vapor with change of state, e.g. absorption, evaporation, condensation
    • B — PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01 — PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01J — CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J19 / 00 — Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J19 / 32 — Packing elements in the form of grids or built-up elements for forming a unit or module inside the apparatus for mass or heat transfer
    • B — PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01 — PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01J — CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219 / 00 — Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219 / 32 — Details relating to packing elements in the form of grids or built-up elements for forming a unit of modules inside the apparatus for mass or heat transfer
    • B01J2219 / 322 — Basic shape of the elements
    • B01J2219 / 32203 — Sheets
    • B01J2219 / 3221 — Corrugated sheets
    • B — PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01 — PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01J — CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219 / 00 — Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219 / 32 — Details relating to packing elements in the form of grids or built-up elements for forming a unit of modules inside the apparatus for mass or heat transfer
    • B01J2219 / 322 — Basic shape of the elements
    • B01J2219 / 32203 — Sheets
    • B01J2219 / 32213 — Plurality of essentially parallel sheets
    • B — PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01 — PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01J — CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219 / 00 — Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219 / 32 — Details relating to packing elements in the form of grids or built-up elements for forming a unit of modules inside the apparatus for mass or heat transfer
    • B01J2219 / 322 — Basic shape of the elements
    • B01J2219 / 32203 — Sheets
    • B01J2219 / 32224 — Sheets characterized by the orientation of the sheet
    • B01J2219 / 32227 — Vertical orientation
    • B — PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01 — PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01J — CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219 / 00 — Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219 / 32 — Details relating to packing elements in the form of grids or built-up elements for forming a unit of modules inside the apparatus for mass or heat transfer
    • B01J2219 / 322 — Basic shape of the elements
    • B01J2219 / 32203 — Sheets
    • B01J2219 / 32255 — Other details of the sheets
    • B01J2219 / 32258 — Details relating to the extremities of the sheets, such as a change in corrugation geometry or sawtooth edges
    • B — PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01 — PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01J — CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219 / 00 — Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219 / 32 — Details relating to packing elements in the form of grids or built-up elements for forming a unit of modules inside the apparatus for mass or heat transfer
    • B01J2219 / 322 — Basic shape of the elements
    • B01J2219 / 32203 — Sheets
    • B01J2219 / 32265 — Sheets characterized by the orientation of blocks of sheets
    • B01J2219 / 32272 — Sheets characterized by the orientation of blocks of sheets relating to blocks in superimposed layers
    • B — PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01 — PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01J — CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219 / 00 — Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219 / 32 — Details relating to packing elements in the form of grids or built-up elements for forming a unit of modules inside the apparatus for mass or heat transfer
    • B01J2219 / 324 — Composition or microstructure of the elements
    • B01J2219 / 32408-Metal
    • B — PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01 — PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01J — CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219 / 00 — Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219 / 32 — Details relating to packing elements in the form of grids or built-up elements for forming a unit of modules inside the apparatus for mass or heat transfer
    • B01J2219 / 324 — Composition or microstructure of the elements
    • B01J2219 / 32466 — Composition or microstructure of the elements comprising catalytically active material
    • Y — GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10 — TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10S — TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S261 / 00 — Gas and liquid contact apparatus
    • Y10S261 / 72 — Packing elements

Abstract

Description

The invention relates to an ordered packing for the exchange of heat and substances between a liquid and a gas in a column. For the heat and material exchange between liquid and gaseous media, in particular for the separation of mixtures by distillation, tray and packed columns are used in technology. The two designs differ with regard to the hydrodynamic operating conditions.
In the case of tray columns, a bubbling layer is formed on the individual trays, in which the liquid predominantly represents the continuous phase and the gas the disperse phase. There are free spaces between the individual floors in which the gas predominantly represents the continuous phase.
The mode of operation of packed columns is different in terms of hydrodynamics from tray columns. Here it is not the liquid but the gas that forms the continuous phase. The liquid runs down as a film over the packs.
Ordered packs are made up of a large number of individual layers of packing elements, such as sheet metal, expanded metal and wire mesh, which are arranged vertically to one another in a regular structure and are usually held together in a composite by fasteners such as metal wires, thin metal rods or sheet metal strips. Usually, these packing elements themselves have a geometric structure, for example in the form of kinks or circular holes with a diameter of about 4 to 6 mm. The openings serve to raise the flood limit of the packing and to allow a higher column loading.
Examples include "Mellapak", CY and BX packs from Sulzer AG, CH-8404 Winterthur, or types A3, BSH or B1 from Montz GmbH, D-40723 Hilden. The kinks in the packing elements of these packs run in a straight line and are inclined at an angle of approximately 30 ° to 45 ° to the longitudinal axis of the pack. The kinks in the packing elements lead to a cross-channel structure within the ordered packing.
DE 196 05 286 A1 describes a special development in which this angle is further reduced to values ​​of 3 ° to 14 ° in order to lower the pressure loss of the packs as much as possible in applications in a high vacuum (approx. 1 mbar head pressure).
In the prior art, ordered packings are known which are catalytically active. A catalytically active distillation packing in a conventional shape is, for example, the packing "KATAPAK" from Sulzer AG, CH-8404 Winterthur.
Ordered packings are usually provided as individual packing layers, which are then stacked one on top of the other in the column. The packing layers usually have a height of about 0.17 m to about 0.30 m.
In the prior art, an ordered pack with the designation "Montz" A2 from Montz GmbH, D-40723 Hilden is known, which has kinked packing elements with curved kink courses. Within a packing element, the slope of these kinks varies over the height of the packing element. The layers of the packing elements alternate in such a way that a packing element in which the slope of the kink line is greatest at the lower end of the packing layer alternates with a packing element in which the slope of the kink line is greatest at the upper end of the packing layer. The internal geometry of the packing layer is therefore constant over its height. However, this type of packing shows an unfavorable separation efficiency compared to the usual, ordered packing.
Because of the great technical importance of heat and mass transfer processes in chemistry and process engineering, in particular the distillation tive material separation, a large number of technical developments aim to improve heat and mass transfer columns, especially distillation columns. Important criteria for an efficient and economical heat and mass transfer column, in particular a distillation column, are its price, its throughput for the gas and liquid flow and the separation efficiency based on the height of the column. It is usually characterized as the number of theoretical plates per meter of column height (nth/ m) or as an overall height for a theoretical separation stage (HETP).
The object of the present invention is to increase the performance and the economy of heat and mass transfer columns, in particular for distillation purposes.
This object is achieved by an ordered packing for heat and mass transfer between a liquid and a gas in a column having at least one packing layer with a first, lower and a second, upper end, the packing layer having an internal geometry that varies over its height So that by suitable adjustment of the liquid and gas quantities in a first, in particular lower area of ​​the packing layer, a bubbling layer with a predominantly disperse gas phase and at the same time in a second, especially upper area of ​​the packing layer, a film flow of the liquid with a predominantly continuous gas phase is specifically formed .
The internal geometry is therefore - in contrast to ordered packings of the prior art - not constant over the height of the packing layer.
The hydrodynamic operating states described can be achieved in that the flow resistance varies over the height of the packing layer. The first, possibly lower area of ​​the packing layer preferably has a greater flow resistance than the second, possibly upper area of ​​the packing layer.
The first area of ​​the packing layer is preferably located in a lower area of ​​the packing layer and the second area of ​​the packing layer is preferably located in an upper area of ​​the packing layer. In the context of the present invention, the first, optionally lower area and the second, optionally upper area of ​​the packing layer preferably extend over the entire cross-sectional area of ​​the packing layer.The first, lower area of ​​the packing layer can directly adjoin the lower end of the packing layer and the second, upper area of ​​the packing layer can directly adjoin the upper end of the packing layer. In a preferred embodiment, the first, optionally lower area of ​​the packing layer directly adjoins the second, optionally upper area.
In the context of the present invention, an ordered packing is preferred in which the packing layer has flat packing elements in contact, in particular sheet metal, expanded metals, wire mesh and knitted fabrics, with kinks of certain courses, the kinks or tangents to the kinks in the first area of ​​the packing layer form a larger angle with the longitudinal axis of the packing layer than in the second region of the packing layer. Particularly preferably, the kink courses or the tangents to the kink courses of the packing elements in the first area of ​​the packing layer form an angle of about 45 ° to about 75 ° and in the second area of ​​about 10 ° to about 45 ° with the longitudinal axis of the packing layer. Very particularly preferably, the kink courses or the tangents to the kink courses in the first area of ​​the packing layer form an angle with the longitudinal axis of the packing layer of about 60 ° to about 70 ° and in the second area of ​​about 30 ° to about 45 °.
The kinks can have an arcuate or straight course, at least in sections.
In a preferred embodiment, the kinks are bent in a monotonous shape so that the tangents to the kink courses at the lower end of the package layer form an angle of about 45 ° to about 75 °, preferably about 60 ° to about 70 °, with the longitudinal axis of the Form packing layer; upwards, this angle of the tangents to the kink courses extends to values ​​of approximately 10 ° to approximately 45 °, preferably approximately. Reduced from 30 ° to about 45 ° to the longitudinal axis of the packing layer.
The ordered packing can also be designed in such a way that the kinks are straight in sections, the kinks in the first region of the packing layer preferably at an angle of about 45 ° to about 75 °, particularly preferably from about 60 ° to about 70 ° the longitudinal axis of the packing layer, and the angle of the kinks decreases upwards in one or more steps to values ​​of preferably about 10 ° to about 45 °, particularly preferably about 30 ° to about 45 °, to the longitudinal axis of the packing layer.
The specific surface area of ​​the ordered packings according to the invention is preferably about 100 to 750 m2/ m3, particularly preferably 250 to 500 m2/ m3.
The kinks in the packing elements can be sharp-edged or rounded.
The first region of the packing layer preferably has a height of 0.02 to 0.10 m, more preferably 0.03 to 0.10 m and particularly preferably 0.03 to 0.05 m.