Which languages ​​influenced Latvian the most

Language history: the influence of other languages ​​on the German language

We jog or walk, after all, “running” is a ridiculous word that does not give enough dynamism to the sporting activity.

Of course, we also buy a coffee to go from the bakery and not a “coffee to take away” because we are always up-to-date. It seems that the German language has a bad hand and must always clear the stage for the trendy Anglicisms. But not only the English language has a great influence on German, but also many other languages.

The language family

The German language belongs to the Indo-European language family and separated from other Germanic languages ​​in the course of the Middle Ages. New High German has only been spoken since 1650, although this has changed again. This change does not affect pronunciation and grammar, but above all the expansion of the vocabulary with new words from other languages ​​and other language families.

The vocabulary of German

Most of the German vocabulary consists of so-called Hereditary wordsthat come from Old High German and Middle High German. They form another part Loanwords, which were originally adopted from other languages ​​as well as the Foreign wordswhich have not been fully adapted to the German language.

Language history and language development

If you look at the language area in which the German language developed, it is understandable that it was influenced by other languages ​​over the centuries. In the Middle Ages and before that time, it was primarily the Latin language that shaped German, particularly in the fields of architecture, religion and warfare.

From 800 to 1100 AD, many words came from the Church Latin, Middle Latin (Monk, sacrifice, alms) and Greek.

The Greek language influenced German particularly in the areas of religion, science and philosophy. Many terms from the 14th to 16th centuries also came from Middle Latin, such as definition, logic, author and advocate.

From the LatinFrom the Greek
windowdemocracy
basement, cellarcrypt
Cartsphilosophy
monasteryphysics
horsechurch
tablePope
candleHeretic
Emperordevil
definitionAngel
authorChristian
logicapostle
Due to the influence of other languages, previously common terms such as "Laachi (Lachi)" and "Bader" disappeared and were replaced by the terms doctor, medic and doctor.

The German language was later dated in the course of the Enlightenment and the Thirty Years' War French embossed. Because after the Thirty Years War, French was spoken at many courts. Thus, French terms in particular, such as jam, sidewalk or boulevard, which were mostly used by the nobility and artists, found their way into the German language.

Other linguistic influences on vocabulary

In addition to linguistic influences from Latin, French and Greek, the German language also has some borrowings from Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. It also records coins from Arabic, Yiddish and the Slavic languages.

Particularly in the areas of trade, medicine, botany, mathematics, chemistry and astronomy, one recognizes a strong influence from Arabic. The terms came to Europe through the Crusades and were included in the German vocabulary.

SlavicYiddish and RotwelschArabicSpanish / Portuguese
borderSend itmagazineadjutant
cucumberDumpTarifftomato
pistolMeshuggecoffeearmada
Bolshevikmessgingertobacco
cabZofforangecannibal
pogromelixir
vampirepetrol
suitcase
algebra

Conclusion

The German language has changed a lot over the last few centuries and New High German has only been spoken since 1650. The German language experienced great linguistic influences through the Latin, Greek, French, Italian and Arabic. In addition, German was also influenced by Yiddish, Portuguese, Spanish and Slavic languages.