Did Jesus Christ believe in Sheol

Jesus in Sheol. What happened between the crucifixion and the ascension of Jesus. Gabor Kover

Transcript

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2 Jesus in Sheol What happened between the crucifixion and the ascension of Jesus Gabor Kover Translation: Hanna Zobel Cover picture: Krisztian Horvath 1st edition December 2012 All rights reserved. Reprinting, including extracts, as well as duplication in any form (photocopy, microfilm or other processes) or processing by electronic systems without the written consent of the author and the publisher are prohibited. Bible passages were taken from the Elberfeld translation. R. Brockhaus Verlag, Witten

3 Jesus in Sheol 3 Contents Part 1 The structure of the earth and the places of judgment The structure of the earth 07 Proverbs 8 12 Tehom 14 Sources of Tehom 15 Tehom and the seas 16 Summary 19 Sheol and other places of judgment 23 Sheol or hell 23 Abaddon 45 Tartaros 48 Gehenna 49 Summary 52 Part 2 Jesus in Sheol Models Prophetic Stories 55 The Story of Joseph 56 The Story of Esther 61 The Story of Jonas 62 Daniel in the Den of Lions 63 Why did Jesus have to go down to Sheol? 65 Jesus in Sheol 71 Resurrection 97 Resurrection 99 Summary 112 Glorification 115 Ascension 118

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5 Jesus in Sheol 5 Introduction The main theme of this book is the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ the great work of redemption. However, in order to understand the Bible's revelation about the suffering, death, and resurrection of Jesus, we must first address a few other topics. Without this prior knowledge, we would understand the chapters that contain the suffering of Jesus only metaphorically, as a kind of figurative speech. That is why we will first deal with the biblical statements about the inner structure of the earth: Where is hell located and what does the Bible say about it. Eventually, as we shall see, this information is extremely important in order to better understand the later sections of the subject. Then we look at some Old Testament role models and stories. They all contain elements related to salvation. These events reveal further aspects of Jesus' sacrifice. Then we deal with the specific Bible passages that deal with the suffering, death and resurrection of Jesus. This book is based exclusively on the Bible and the resulting biblical teaching. There are many biblical passages in it, which are briefly commented on, so that this book simultaneously interprets the Bible. While reading, a basic principle emerges that if the Bible is not spoken in a self-explanatory manner in parables, it must first and foremost not be understood metaphorically, but rather literally. When we read the Bible in this way, we will also understand it better. Jesus ascended to heaven after his resurrection, but through the members of the church he continues to work here on earth today. The Gospel of Mark describes this in chapter 16:20 as follows: They went out and preached while the Lord cooperated and confirmed the word with the signs that followed.

6 6 Jesus in Sheol As you read this book, I hope that Jesus Christ will bear testimony of himself through the passages in the Bible and that the Holy Spirit will touch you!

7 Jesus in Sheol 7 The Structure of the Earth People today view many scientific theories as facts. These scientific theories are materialistic conceptions. They have become part of today's worldview, as one can best prove today's scientific-materialistic worldview with these theories. However, these theories have a number of weaknesses. Materialistic science cannot explain very many facts and therefore can only interpret part of the truth. Incomprehensible or inexplicable phenomena are often classified in a category that is often referred to as follows: No explanation can be found. This category includes e.g. parapsychology, the origins of life, the primal puzzles, and numerous other things. That is why one hears more and more often the opinion that the scientific-materialistic worldview is outdated. However, most of these phenomena and mysteries can be interpreted from the Bible. Maybe the Bible isn't that old-fashioned book after all? People today also have an idea of ​​the internal structure of the earth that corresponds to materialistic, scientific theory. According to the most popular theory, the earth (as well as the rest of the stars and planets) once exploded out of a primordial mass (Big Bang). The surface of the hot lava hardened in the cold universe. Since then it has steadily cooled down, but the inside is still hot. The plates of the earth float or move on this hot lava. We will look at the inner structure of the earth on the basis of the biblical revelations, which do not coincide with this scientific-materialistic theory. The first and most fundamental difference is that, according to the Bible, God created the earth. In the book of Job we find a passage where God himself tells how He did this:

8 8 Jesus in Sheol Job 38: 1; Then the LORD answered Job from the storm and said: ... 4 Where were you when I founded the earth? Share it when you know insight! 5 Who has determined their measurements (the word also means: watch out, watch out, watch out, arrange in a row), if you know it? Or who stretched the measuring line over her? 6 On what are their bases sunk? 7 Or who laid her corner stone when the morning stars shouted together and all the sons of God shouted for joy? 8 Who closed the sea with doors when it broke out, poured out of the womb, 9 when I made clouds for his robe and dark clouds for his swaddling clothes 10 and I drew his borders and set bolts and doors 11 and said, You come this far and no further, and here should the pride of your waves stop? Based on this description, the earth lies on a cornerstone that forms the center of the earth. God laid this one, and there is only one of them. On this foundation stone he lowered the base (in the ancient Hebrew original text of the Bible Grund eden = base, base, column). The Bible calls these bases the pillars of the earth. There are also other words that the Word of God uses for these pillars: the next is the word דסומ mosad = ground, foundation. Let us look at some Bible passages in which this word occurs: Isaiah 24:18 And it happens whoever flees from the voice of horror (from the terrible news) falls into the pit; and whoever comes up from the pit is caught in the thread. For the windows on high open, and the foundations (pillars) of the earth shake.

9 Jesus in Sheol 9 The entire chapter (Isaiah 24) deals with the catastrophes of the end times. Among other things, we can also read here that the earth will be affected by such cosmic plagues that will shake the pillars of the earth. Micah 6: 2 Hear, you mountains, the battle of the Lord, and you ancestors, you foundations of the earth. (and you immutable ones, you foundations of the earth!) The prophet Micah describes here that the pillars are very stable. The exact meanings of the word used for ancestors are as follows: strong, stable, massive, hard. 2 Samuel 22:16 Then the beds of the sea were seen, the foundations of the world were revealed by the scolding of the LORD, before the breath of the breath of his nose. Here we read that because of the wrath of God and because of the light that surrounds His presence, the beds and channels of the sea have become visible and the pillars of the earth have been uncovered! So God seems to have been there before, full of anger at that! The following Bible passage shows us another interesting thing: Jeremiah 31:37 Thus says the LORD: If the heavens can be measured above and the foundations of the earth below can be explored, then I will also reject all the descendants of Israel because of all that they have done, says the Lord.

10 10 Jesus in Sheol God says here through the prophet Jeremiah that it is both impossible that God rejects Israel forever and that the pillars of the earth can be explored or can be uncovered. Only from the Word of God can we get information about these pillars. Another passage from the Bible shows us that the inside of the earth cannot be explored: Proverbs 25: 3 The heaven above and the earth below and the heart of kings are inexplicable. It is interesting that this applies not only to the state of technology at the time the Bible was made, but also today! Even today we have extremely little information about the interior of the earth. Experts could only drill a few kilometers into the depth. They set up their theories on the basis of various conclusions. It's like trying to describe the inside of an apple by examining the peel ... Another word the Bible uses for the pillars of the earth is this: דומע amud = pillar. This word comes from the word stand up (e.g. stand up a statue or pillar). But it also means strengthen, maintain, withstand or persist and also includes the meaning massive or stable. The Bible uses this word for the pillars of clouds and fire that Israel led at the time of the Exodus, as well as the pillars of the tabernacle and the Temple of Solomon. Psalm 75: 4 let the earth and all its inhabitants shake; I have established its pillars.

11 Jesus in Sheol 11 If we read through the entire 75th Psalm, we see that this chapter is about judgment and that God has appointed a time when He will just judge sinful people. During the time of judgment, many of the earth's inhabitants will disappear because of the plagues. However, God will strengthen the pillars of the earth so that they do not collapse. The following Bible passage also deals with God's judgment: Job 9,6 He (God) moves the earth from its place, so that its pillars tremble. In Job's day, people still believed that the earth rests on pillars. God can shake the earth so that even the pillars tremble! The next word for the pillars of the earth is נוכמ makhon = ground, base, pillar. Psalm 104,5 He founded the earth on its foundations (pillars). She will not waver forever and ever. This word also has the meaning stable, massive. The entire earth rests on a very massive base so that it does not collapse or wobble. Finally, the fifth Hebrew word is: קצמ macuk = column. 1 Samuel 2: 8 For the pillars of the earth belong to the LORD, and on them he has set the world. On the basis of the last two biblical passages it becomes clear that God the earth as we humans know it, as a solid bowl on it

12 12 Jesus founded pillars in Sheol. The hard layer rests on the foundations and pillars so that it never wobbles, so that the earth is stable. (If only stone slabs a few kilometers thick lay over a layer of lava several thousand kilometers thick, wouldn't the same thing happen as on the sun, namely, that the lava breaks out of it frequently?) So these five Hebrew words refer to a and the same: on the pillars of the earth, which stand on the foundation stone of the earth and support the outer hard layers of earth! Proverbs 8 So far, our starting point in the Bible was Job 38: 1-17. We find a very similar passage in the Bible in Proverbs 8: 2-30, where God himself speaks about the creation of the earth: Proverbs 8, The Lord created me as the beginning of his path, as the first of his works from time immemorial. 23 I was ordained from eternity, from the beginning, before the beginning of the earth. 24 When there were no floods, I was born when there were no springs, rich in water. 25 Before the mountains were sunk, I was born before the hills, 26 when he had not yet made the earth and the fields, nor the entirety of the clods of land. 27 When he found the heavens, I was there. When he made a circle over the surface of the deep, 28 when he fortified the clouds above, when he made the springs of the deep strong, 29 when he set his barrier to the sea so that the water would not violate his command when he laid the foundations of the Earth size: 30 then I was his lap child and was his delight day after day, playing in front of him all the time.

13 Jesus in Sheol 13 In this chapter speaks the Son, the later incarnate Redeemer, about whom we can read in the Old Testament as an angel of God or Lord of hosts. He speaks of himself as wisdom, of eternity, of the time before the creation of heaven and earth, as well as of the creation of the earth. He tells that the Father is not only about the spiritual world and spiritual creatures, such as the angels, but also the dust, i.e. matter in itself: when he had not yet made the earth and the fields, nor the beginning of the dust of the mainland (verse 26). Again we can read about the pillars of the world (verse 29). Literally translated: when he carved out the foundations of the earth. We also read about the creation of the sea here, as in Job 38. It would be very interesting to study the whole chapter in more depth, but to stay with our topic, let's just look at what else the Messiah says about what is inside the earth: Proverbs 8:24 When there was none When there were floods, I was born when there were no springs, rich in water. Proverbs 8:27 ... as he made a circle over the surface of the deep. Proverbs 8:28 when he made the springs of the deep strong. In this description we should pay more attention to two words: Both the word for depth (Hebrew Tehom) and the word for sources appear frequently here. But what is this Tehom actually?

14 14 Jesus in Sheol (םוהת) Tehom The meaning of the word is 1st depth and 2nd vortex. According to the footnote of the Pearl Bible (Genesis 1: 2), the tehom is a rushing, deep amount of water. It's inside the earth. (There are also passages in the Bible in which Tehom means the depths of the sea and oceans, but we are only dealing with this word here in the sense of underground waters.) What does the Bible say about these waters? Psalm 136: 6 He who spread the earth over the waters, for his goodness endures forever. Psalm 24: 1-2 The LORD is the earth and its abundance, the world and those who dwell on it. For he, he founded them over seas and established them over rivers. Although the word Tehom (deep) does not appear in these Psalms, we can see here that God placed the earth over the seas (water) and rivers. From the scriptures about the pillars of the earth, we could see that God placed the earth on pillars. Now we also learn that it is not only based on pillars, but also over water! The Bible calls these waters under the earth Tehom.

15 Jesus in Sheol 15 Sources of Tehom At the point (Proverbs 8) in which Christ speaks about Tehom (deep), he also mentions the springs filled with water, as we have already seen. Accordingly, one of the main characteristics of the Tehom is that it has sources. We also read of these sources when describing the Flood: Genesis 7:11 In the 600th year of Noah's life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on this day all the springs of the great depths were opened, and the windows of heaven opened. Genesis 8: 2-3 The springs of the deep and the windows of heaven were closed, and the rain from heaven was withheld. And the water ran away from the earth, gradually receding; and the water decreased after 150 days. The waters of Tehom come to the surface of the earth via these springs: Proverbs 3:20 Through his knowledge the floods broke out of the depths, the clouds are oozing with dew. For example, the next section clear: the rivers arise from the waters of the Tehom. Ezekiel 31:15 This is what the Lord GOD says: On the day that she went down into Sheol, I mourned the deep because of her.

16 16 Jesus sat in Sheol; I covered them and restrained their rivers; the great waters were blocked, and I wrapped Lebanon in mourning for their sake; all the trees in the field fainted for their sake. When God closes the waters of Tehom, the rivers dry up, drought occurs and all the trees in the field dry up. In Genesis 49:25, Jacob blessed Joseph precisely because of this: The (Lord) bless you with blessings from heaven above, with blessings from the depths below, with blessings of the breasts and the womb. Jacob knew that through his (God's) knowledge the floods broke out of Tehom. (Proverbs 3:20), and he also knew that it was a very important blessing: For the LORD your God brings you to a good land, a land of streams, springs and waters of Tehom, which are in the plain and arise in the mountains. (Deuteronomy 8: 7) Tehom and the seas Like the rivers, so also the seas spring from Tehom. These subterranean waters are therefore not the same as the seas or oceans. This can be seen from the fact that the Bible uses different words for this: Job 28:14 The deep says: It is not in me! and the sea says: Not with me! Also in Psalm 135 we read: Everything that pleases the Lord he does in heaven and on earth, in the seas and in all depths.(Psalm 135: 6) Tehom and the seas are therefore different from each other.

17 Jesus in Sheol 17 Let us look again at Job 38: 8-9: Who closed the sea with doors when it broke out, oozed from the womb, when I made clouds for his robe and dark clouds for his diapers? Accordingly, the sea broke out from somewhere. According to the Hebrew word, it gushed out when God created the seas. Based on this biblical passage, it seems that after God founded the globe over the deep waters, at his word the waters of Tehom gushed out of the springs of the deep to the surface and so the seas came into being! (Incidentally, to this day science cannot explain the origin of the waters of the earth, although it suspects much less water on earth than there is in reality.) Where the water gushed out of the Tehom, the sources of the Tehom were: 16 Have you come to the sources of the sea, and have you traversed the source of the deep? 17 Have the gates of death been revealed to you, and have you seen the gates of darkness? Here we can get the feeling that the Bible describes a picture from top to bottom: the sources of the sea, including the bottom of the deep, and finally the gates of death. The realm of death begins somewhere at the very bottom of the deep. The sources of the seas are between the deep (Tehom) and the seas, at the bottom of the seas. The seas get the water from the Tehom through these springs. If we look at these sources from the depths, then these are the sources of the depths, for through them the waters of the depths emerge. However, if we look at them from above, from the perspective of the oceans, then it is the sources of the oceans, because through them the oceans get their water. So we see that the sources of the seas and the springs

18 18 Jesus in Sheol of the deep mean the same here. Tehom and the seas are connected to each other only at these sources. The springs filled with water, the sources of the Tehom, are not located at the bottom of the Tehom, ie they do not feed it because it is in itself the large water reservoir, but these springs are located at the top of the Tehom, and arise from here the waters in the seas or oceans. The 17th verse is about death and the gates of darkness. These are the gates of the underworld (of Sheol). You are below, at the very bottom of the deep, somewhere at the foundation stone of the earth. We have already read verse 6 of Psalm 135. Let us now look at him from a different angle: Everything that pleases the Lord he does in heaven and on earth, in the seas and in all depths. We can also regard this verse as a representation leading down from above. Here, too, we see that the Tehom is under the seas. Another meaning of the word Tehom (depth) is: stream, flowing, swirling water. This suggests that the Tehom cannot be imagined as a silent water reservoir, but, as is often the case with the oceans, the water flows, swirls or roars under the earth in the Tehom. The results of deep excavations today prove these biblical truths: In several places, several hot water storage tanks were found underground through deep excavations. Because of this, it was concluded that there is much more water in the interior of the earth than previously thought. But how can the water be so hot? The waters of the deep are under enormous pressure. This will prevent them from evaporating. The greater the pressure, the greater the boiling point of the water. It can also not be ruled out that the properties of the substances inside the earth, so too

19 Jesus in Sheol 19 change those of the water under such great pressure and temperature and take on properties that are unknown to us. In addition to the Galapagos Islands, for example, hot water springs have been discovered on the sea floor. Hot water that is very rich in minerals erupts from these springs. Due to the high pressure, the boiling point of the water is 380 C! Incidentally, so far, mankind has hardly known the bottom of the oceans. Approximately 0.0001% has been explored. It is amazing that so far there are more images of the moon than of the bottom of the oceans! In the book of Job we read that in the interior of the earth there is also fire (magma) in addition to the water: Job 28,5 The earth, from which the bread comes out, its lower part is turned over as by fire. However, the Bible emphasizes the water occurring in the earth's interior, the Tehom, much more than the fire or the molten rock! Summary We have now looked through those parts of the Bible that deal with the interior of the earth. I am not suggesting that I managed to interpret everything precisely. I am also aware that this description may seem strange and old-fashioned to many. But according to the biblical worldview, the interior of the earth should look something like this, and as we could even see, even Christ, as wisdom, speaks about it with regard to the creation of the earth. In summary, two main points can be identified:

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21 Jesus in Sheol God built the globe on pillars. 2. In the interior of the earth there is a great deal of water, the Tehom, the waters of the deep. We have no information about the size and thickness of the pillars or the dimensions of the foundation stone. We also don't know how thick the outer, hard layer is. The interior of the earth, apart from the first 30 to 70 km, is still completely unexplored. (The radius of the earth is 6378 km!) Would it not be possible that the outer layer of the earth consists of several layers and that the earth plates move on these? Is there perhaps also the molten rock, the lava, between these layers or even in the tectonic plates? We cannot answer these questions. One thing is certain in any case: Neither the scientific nor the biblical view can be clearly proven. The Bible itself says: The interior of the earth is inexplicable. We can only accept the structure of our planet, like every work of God, through faith. It is impossible for us to fully understand God, for he is a much higher being than man. But God doesn't expect us to understand him either, but rather that we believe in him! The most important thing for us to see in this section, based on the biblical description, is that there is much more hot water inside the earth than we had imagined. In the following chapters we will see why this is so important.

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23 Jesus in Sheol 23 Sheol and other places of judgment I am aware that the teaching about hell is not popular. In relation to our subject, however, it is very important to understand what Jesus suffered for us. So we understand what a great force it took to conquer hell and death. One need not be frightened of the teaching about hell. If it is talked about with faith, then build up the word of God. It will bring about fear of God and faith. The statement that the word is life and spirit also applies to the Bible passages about hell! However, if you don't like this topic at all or if you don't like reading it, you can skip this section and turn to the chapter Jesus in Sheol, Models for Prophetic Stories. So what does the Word of God write about hell and about the places of punishment in the interior of the earth? Sheol (לוא ש) or hell The place of punishment in the hereafter that occurs most frequently in the Bible is Sheol. Its meaning is: Hell, realm of the dead. In Sheol, the souls of the deceased are gathered until the great judgment. The Hebrew-Aramaic dictionary Gesenius defines Sheol as follows: a word used exclusively in Israel for the kingdom of the dead, the etimology of which is unknown. This word appears 63 times in the Old Testament. Its characteristics are:

24 24 Jesus in Sheol 1.) Very deep, can be found in the interior of the earth. Proverbs 15:24 The way of life goes up for the discerning man, so that he can escape Sheol below. Isaiah 14: 9 Sheol below is moving on your behalf, awaiting your arrival. Because of you he disturbs the shadows, all mighty powers of the earth, he causes all kings of the nations to rise from their thrones. Numbers 16:30 But when the LORD creates something new and the earth opens his mouth and devours them with all that belongs to them, and they go down alive into Sheol ... These examples make it clear where Sheol ( Hell) is located. It is therefore not located in an extraterrestrial place, but inside the earth. 2.) The Bible describes him as a hungry beast that devours whatever gets in its way. There are possibly already several billion human souls in it: Habakkuk 2.5 he, who opens his throat wide like Sheol and who is like death and never eats his fill! And he gathers all nations and gathers all peoples to himself. Proverbs 27:20 Sheol and the abyss are not satisfied, nor are man's eyes satisfied.

25 Jesus in Sheol 25 3.) Sheol has gates. Jesus speaks of the fact that even the gates of hell cannot overwhelm the church: Matthew 16:18 But I also say to you: You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and become the gates of Hades (Sheol) don't overwhelm them. We have to think of Sheol as a multi-storey cave system. It doesn't resemble an earthly land. It has not only widths and lengths, but heights as well. There is always a lot going on there. Every day people die whose souls end up in hell. This large amount of traffic cannot be intercepted at just one entrance; there must be several gates, which are very likely to be located a considerable distance from each other. In the times of the Bible the leaders and the nobles of a city sat in the gates. Presumably Jesus is talking about the evil spirits who sit in the gates of Sheol. Accordingly, the evil forces of Sheol attack the church from below, starting from the gates of Sheol. They are constantly forging new and evil plans, also against individual Christians. If, on the other hand, the church members stay on the rock, then nothing will happen to them the forces of hell can never defeat the church! Who are these evil spirits? There are passages in the Bible that show that Sheol is not only a geographical place but also a person: Revelation 6: 8 And I saw, And, behold, a pale horse, and he who sat on it, whose name is Death; and Hades followed him. And power was given to them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with the sword and with famine and with death and by the wild beasts of the earth.

26 26 Jesus in Sheol, Revelation 20, death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and they were judged, each one according to his works. 14 And death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. In these passages, Sheol (Hades) is not mentioned as a geographical location as before, but as a person. In the first passage we read that he is sitting on a horse, in the second, however, that he is being thrown into the lake of fire. In both cases it would be inconceivable that it would be the great underground prison of the soul. The evil spirit of death has the task of delivering the soul of a deceased person to Sheol for surveillance. The evil angel of Sheol is responsible for the geographical location, i.e. for hell. After the fall of man, he was given the task of guarding the soul of a sinful person and keeping it in captivity. (God delivers these souls to him because of their sins.) Presumably the geographical place was named after the name of the evil angel, which is why the origin of the word is unknown to people. These two main evil angels are therefore the representatives or servants of Satan. They sit with other evil spirits in the gates of Sheol and regularly attack the church. It seems that they are not in a subordinate relationship to one another, but rather in an equal relationship, whereby they work closely together. Psalm 55:16 Let death surprise them; let them go down alive into Sheol; for wickedness is in their dwelling, within them. Revelation 6: 8 ... he who sat on it, whose name is death; and Hades followed him.

27 Jesus in Sheol 27 These passages show how someone comes into Sheol: First comes death, which surrounds the sinful man. He takes the spirit or the soul from him and hands it over to Sheol. This then takes him down to hell. 4.) In the Old Testament, not only did the souls of sinful people go to hell, but also those of the righteous! Genesis 37:35 and all his sons and all his daughters rose to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted and said: No, but in mourning I will go down to Sheol to my son. So his father (Jacob) wept for him. Genesis 44:29 And if you also take that away from me and an accident happens to it, then you bring my (Jacob's) gray hair down to Sheol with misfortune. Numbers 16:33 And they went down alive into Sheol, they and all that belonged to them (Korach, Datan, and Abiram); and the earth covered them ... Jacob, who was a righteous man, came there. But so did Korach and his companions, who were evil people. The explanation for this is that in the Old Testament even the righteous were not allowed to go to heaven, in God's presence, because redemption had not yet taken place. They had to go to the underworld, to Sheol, where God gave them a separate place. Here they waited for the fulfillment of salvation. However, this was not a place of suffering, but of consolation. The New Testament calls this place the bosom of Abraham because all those were allowed in there,

28 28 Jesus in Sheol who followed Abraham's faith, believed in God and waited for the Messiah. The Greek word for lap used here actually means chest. In Old Testament societies, friends rested their heads on each other's chests to express their friendship and to show that they trusted each other unconditionally. We can also read this about Jesus Christ and his disciples in the Bible. In Abraham's bosom, the Old Testament believers residing there, with Abraham at their head, had a very friendly, loving relationship with one another. Jesus once told a parable of this place in Sheol, which was separated for the righteous: Luke 16, but it was a rich man, and he dressed in purple and fine linen and lived happily and in pomp every day. 20 But a poor man named Lazarus was lying at his gate, full of sores, 21 and he desired to fill himself with the garbage from the rich man's table; but the dogs also came and licked his sores. 22 And it came to pass that the poor man died and was carried into Abraham's bosom by the angels. But the rich man also died and was buried. 23 And when he opened his eyes in Hades and was in agony, he saw Abraham from afar and Lazarus in his bosom. 24 And he called and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in the water and cool my tongue. Because I am tormented in this flame. 25 And Abraham said, Child, remember that in your life you have received all your good, and Lazarus also received the bad; but now he is comforted here, but you are in pain. 26 And for all of this, a great gulf has been established between us and you, so that those who

29 Jesus in Sheol 29 who want to go over to you from here, but cannot, nor can those who want to come over to us from there. 27 But he said, I ask you now, Father, to send him to my father's house, 28 for I have five brothers, that he should bear witness to them so that they do not come to this place of torment as well. 29 But Abraham said, They have Moses and the prophets. May you hear them! 30 And he said, No, father Abraham, but if anyone goes to them from the dead, they will repent. 31 But he said to him, If they do not hear Moses and the prophets, they will not be convinced if someone arises from the dead. From this parable it becomes clear that the righteous after their death are not caught by the evil spirits called death and hell, but that the angels bring them to the place chosen for them. We also learn that there is a great ravine between Abraham's lap and Sheol's prison. All three persons recognized each other, i.e. there are not impersonal shadows in Sheol, but the spirits of the people can be identified. In a certain way even the shadow of a person feels the pain, otherwise Sheol would not be a place of judgment. The spirit of sinful people suffers, it burns in Sheol. The spirit of the righteous, on the other hand, does not. The rich man saw that Lazarus was fine on the other side of the ravine. He asked if he could only dip his fingertip in water to cool his tongue. But even that is not given to a person lost in Sheol. The inhabitants of Sheol remember earthly events, which is clear from what Abraham said to the rich man: Child, remember

30 30 Jesus in Sheol 5.) Sheol is under the waters, i.e. under the waters of the deep, the Tehom. Job 26,5 The shadows under the water and its inhabitants shake before God. So Sheol is among the waters and its inhabitants. From these biblical passages it can be seen that the womb of Abraham is immediately under the waters.Perhaps that is why the rich man asked Abraham to put his finger in the water because the waters were near Lazarus? 6.) Every dead person is in the hand of the evil angel named Sheol. Psalm 89:49 What man lives and will not see death, will free his life from the violence of Sheol? Psalm 49:16 But God will redeem my soul from the power of Sheol; because he will take me in. Job 7,9 The cloud disappears and passes away; so whoever goes down into Sheol does not go back up again. At the resurrection, of course, God will bring souls up to judgment. It can be seen that the souls of men are under the power of Sheol. Nobody can come out of there independently, of their own volition. It seems logical that this is not about the prison system; after all, it can be a geographic one

31 Jesus in Sheol 31 having no power within oneself. This passage again speaks of Sheol as a person. Until the death and redemption of Jesus Christ, Satan, death and Sheol had a greater degree of power over everyone. This can be inferred from Jacob's complaint. However, God turned the situation around: Hosea 13:14 should I free her from the power of Sheol, redeem her from death? (Other translation: I deliver them from the power of Sheol, I deliver them from death!) Where are your thorns, death? Where is your sting, Sheol? Compassion is hidden from my eyes. Revelation 1:18 I (Jesus) have the keys of death and Hades. Through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, Satan, death, and Sheol were defeated, and the righteous people were set free. He also took power over Sheol! However, this power will not become fully apparent until the resurrection. 7.) In Sheol one does not think about God, he is not praised either. Psalm 6,6 For in death you are not called upon; in Sheol, who will praise you? Isaiah 38:18 For Sheol does not praise you, death does not praise you; who went down into the pit do not hope in your loyalty.

32 32 Jesus in Sheol In Sheol there is no knowledge of God. The human souls staying there know that they have gambled away their chance. They were separated from God. 8.) There are no activities whatsoever in Sheol. The people staying there cannot do anything; they just lie and suffer. Ecclesiastes 9:10 Everything that your hand finds to do, do in your strength. Because there is neither doing nor calculating, nor knowledge nor wisdom in Sheol, into which you are going. Ezekiel 32:21 The mighty heroes spoke with him from the middle of Sheol, with him and his helpers. They have come down, they are lying there, the uncircumcised, those slain by the sword. 9.) Sheol is open to God; he is not hidden from him. God knows what happens there and when. Proverbs 15:11 Sheol and the abyss are open before the LORD, how much more the hearts of the children of men! Job 26,6 Sheol lies naked before him, and the abyss has no covering. These passages show God's omniscience. The fact that he knows what is happening there does not mean, however, that he intervenes in any life.

33 Jesus in Sheol) Some people who deal with occultism made (or make) a covenant with Sheol and with death against God in order to secure protection from God's judgment in this way. Isaiah 28:15; 18 15 For you say, We made a covenant with death and made a treaty with Sheol. When the incoming scourge passes through it, it will not reach us, for we have made lies our refuge and in deceit we have sheltered ourselves. 18 And your covenant with death will be canceled, and your contract with Sheol will not endure. When the incoming scourge passes through, you will be trampled underfoot by it. God will judge this occult covenant. Not only will judgment reach you, it will crush you as well. 11.) In Sheol there are whole cities, even whole nations. Every nation has its own fixed location. Ezekiel 32, There is Assyria and all his commandments round about his grave: all of them, slain, fallen by the sword, 23 Assyrian, to whom his graves were given in the deepest pit, and his delegation is buried round about his grave. They are all slain, fallen by the sword, who once spread terror in the land of the living. Psalm 9:18 May the wicked turn to Sheol, all the nations that forget God.

34 34 Jesus in Sheol This is probably also what Jesus said: And you, Capernaum, do you think you will be lifted up to heaven? You will be pushed down to Hades ... (Matthew 11:23) We will come back to this topic later. 12.) Sheol has shackles and traps with which he ties the prisoners and keeps them captive. 2 Samuel 22: 6 The fetters of Sheol surrounded me, the traps of death overwhelmed me. Many tend to imagine the spiritual world as an intangible, mysterious reality, where everything dissolves, blurs and things have no fixed boundaries or expansions. The Bible shows a different picture. Jesus once said to a deaf and mute: Hefata! That is: be opened (solved)! and immediately his ears were opened, and the band of his tongue was loosened, and he spoke rightly. His tongue was tied with a spiritual ribbon. If someone in such a situation had an insight into the spiritual world, he would see these shackles on the tongue of such a person, which prevent the tongue from moving. It may be that this person may be able to utter noises, but he cannot speak because his tongue does not move. These fetters cannot be loosened with any sharp object, only with the spiritual sword. Like Jesus, we can only help such people with the language of power: Open yourself (hefata)! 13.) It is dark in Sheol. Job 17:13 I hope nothing more! Sheol is my house, in the darkness I spread my bed.

35 Jesus in Sheol 35 Job 10, before I go and do not come back to the land of darkness and the shadow of death, 22 to the land that is black as darkness, the land of darkness there is no order, and even light is there like darkness ! We might now ask how it was possible that the rich man saw Lazarus. The answer is easy: the Bible clearly depicts hell as a place of thick darkness. In Abraham's bosom, however, it was not dark. Those who were nearby, as well as the rich man, could see the other side of the gorge out of the darkness. 14.) It is very hot in Sheol and everything is glowing. Luke 16:24 ... because I am tormented in this flame (the rich man from the story of Lazarus). Song of Songs 8: 6 hard as Sheol's passion. Your gluten are fire gluten. 15.) In Sheol there is not the body of the people, but their spirit or shadow םיאפר) refaim = shadow). Isaiah 14: 9 Sheol below is moving on your behalf, awaiting your arrival. Because of you he disturbs the shadows, all mighty powers of the earth, he causes all kings of the nations to rise from their thrones.

36 36 Jesus in Sheol Here the prophet Isaiah reveals that the shadows are not engaged in any activity, because this is the only way to disturb someone. So nothing happens. In suffering one only waits for judgment. From this biblical passage it can also be deduced that the human souls in Sheol not only keep their memory, but in a certain way they also keep their rank. Kings on earth keep their titles in Sheol as well. This is understandable, because after all we all have to appear before God for judgment, where God will judge everyone based on what position they held and what he did in the course of his earthly life - the kings based on what they did as king. Let's look at other places where the term shadow occurs: Isaiah 26:19 Your dead come to life, my corpses rise again. Wake up and cheer, inhabitants of the dust! For a dew of lights is your dew, and the earth will give birth to shadows. We see that there was already talk of the resurrection in the Old Testament! Psalm 88:11 will you work miracles in the dead? Or will the dead (shadows) stand up, praise you? God does not work among the dead. That is why he is not praised there; God's supernatural wisdom does not exist in Sheol. Proverbs 2:18 For to death their house is lowered, and to the shadows their paths.

37 Jesus in Sheol 37 Proverbs 9:18 And he does not know that there are the shadows, in the depths of Sheol their summons. These two scriptures from Proverbs refer to adulterers and prostitutes. Should someone fornicate with either of the two, his life will be in the direction of the shadow of Sheol. The exact meanings of the Hebrew word for shadow are: weak, pale, abandoned. That is, the shadows in Sheol, the disembodied human souls, are very weak. We can think of it like a dream in which we wanted to escape from something but couldn't. Even in dreams one wonders why one is so slow to make progress. In such a case, we realize how weak our mind really is without our body. This is also one of the reasons why the dead believers who are already in heaven longingly await the resurrection. The following interesting phenomenon proves the fact that humans have a shadow (spirit): People with amputations sometimes seem to feel their missing body parts. For example, if someone If the hand has been amputated, the person sometimes wakes up and feels that he still has his hand. In reality he feels the hand of his shadow (spirit). The shadow of the person is recognizable. It is just like the body, only without its weaknesses (e.g. wrinkles). The Endor fortune teller recognized the shadow of Samuel, just as the rich man in Sheol recognized the shadow of Abraham. If you look at these biblical passages, it is interesting that the substance of a person shines out of his shadow: You immediately know the name, you can see who he is, what status he was, e.g. it was evident in Samuel what a great prince he was. Another good news is that even when body parts are amputated

38 38 Had to become Jesus in Sheol, or the body suffered other hardships, the shadow (spirit) of man gets all his body parts back at the resurrection. Jesus guaranteed this to those who believed in him when he said: But you will be delivered up even by parents and brothers and relatives and friends, and they will put some of you to death; you will be hated by all for my name's sake. But not a hair of your head will be lost. (Luke 21: 16-18) 16.) The Sheol consists of several parts, chambers or cells. Proverbs 7:27 Her house is one way to Sheol, which leads down to the chambers of death. The Hebrew word used here is רדח heder, which means tomb, pantry, interior room, bedroom. This verse also suggests that the home of an adulterous woman leads men down to the gates of death. Job 17:15 She goes down with me to Sheol (to the chambers of Sheol) when we are together in the dust. The word bad is used here, which means: piece, in itself, separate, separate, alone. These two verses indicate that people in Hell are separated from one another. So every soul has its own chamber or burial place in which it lies. There are other words that the Bible uses for hell and. תח ש sahat their tombs. One of them is the word. This word also has several meanings: 1. Snare trap to catch wild animals; 2. sump pit; 3. Tomb, underworld, Sheol.

39 Jesus in Sheol 39 Let us only turn to the latter meaning and look at two passages in the Bible: Isaiah 38:17 Behold, for salvation I suffered bitterly: You, you have lovingly held my soul back from the pit of destruction .. Here we read a messianic prophecy by King Hezekiah, to whom the words of Jesus were given by the Holy Spirit. This prophecy is about the fact that out of love the Father drew the soul of Jesus out of Sheol, the pit of perdition. So this word clearly relates to Sheol. Ezekiel 28: 8 They will bring you down into the pit (sahat), and you will die to the death of someone slain in the heart of the seas. The word sahat appears in this verse as well. Ezekiel's prophecy speaks of the judgment against Satan, more precisely of the fact that God's angels will shut Satan Lucifer into a pit of Sheol, which is in the center, in the heart of the seas (Tehom). The next word is bor. רב This also has several meanings: 1. Well, cistern Genesis 37:20 So come now and let us kill him and throw him into one of the cisterns, and we will say: An evil beast has him eaten! Then we'll see what happens to his dreams.

40 40 Jesus in Sheol 2.) Pit Psalm 7.16 He (the wicked) dug a pit (bor) and hollowed it out, but he fell into the trap (sahat) that he made. 3. Sheol Psalm 28: 1 To you, Lord, I call; My rock, do not turn away from me in silence, so that you do not fall silent against me and I will not become like those who go down into the pit (bor)! This term goes down into the pit occurs more often in the Bible. It always refers to the souls who went down to Sheol. Psalm 88: 7 You have laid me in the deepest pit, in darkness, in depths (between vertebrae). These psalms are messianic psalms. They are about what the Savior feels in Sheol. In the 88th Psalm it says that he came into the deepest bor, the deepest pit (cistern) רוב תויתחת) bor tahtijjot = deepest pit)! 4.) Prison Genesis 40:15 For I was stolen from the land of the Hebrews, and here I did nothing at all, that they put me in prison.

41 Jesus in Sheol 41 Psalm 142: 8 Bring my soul out of prison, that I may praise your name. Joseph, one of the greatest examples of the Old Testament regarding Jesus Christ, was also in prison, as was Jesus himself. The word bor occurs in both passages. Isaiah 24, And in that day it shall come to pass, the LORD shall punish the host of the highest on high, and the kings of the earth on the earth. 22 They will be locked up just as prisoners are locked up in the pit (dungeon), yes, they will be locked up in the dungeon and haunted after many days. Isaiah lists the various plagues that will hit the earth. These can also be found in the Revelation of John. He then describes that Satan and the spirits on high (the evil spirits) will come into the bor. Here again this refers to Sheol, the dungeon of the deep. All evil spirits in the world will be bound there during the millennium until they are finally haunted after many days, i.e. they will be set free again for a short time. This will lead to the final revolt against Jesus Christ and his saints at the end of the millennial kingdom. The word bor also occurs in other places as a synonym for Sheol: Ezekiel 26, 20 then I will let you go down with those who go down into the pit to the people of primeval times, and let you dwell in the depths under the earth, in the Ruins from the past, with those who went down into the pit so that you would no longer be inhabited (Tire).

42 42 Jesus in Sheol The human souls of the past live there, just like the ruins of the past are here. This expression in the ruins of prehistoric times gives a little insight into the past of Hell: In the past it was not always a prison system as it is now. When it was not yet in ruins, it seemed to have looked different there. However, this is one of the secrets of God. A short time later, God spoke to Ezekiel again to prophesy that Egypt would perish. Then God told Ezekiel what the Sheol looks like, to which Egypt has to go down. Ezekiel 32, And it came to pass in the twelfth year, on the fifteenth of the month, that the word of the LORD came to me as follows: 18 Son of man, mourn the splendor of Egypt, and cast it down, Egypt and the daughters of mighty nations, into the land of Depths to those who descended into the pit! 19 Who are you now exceeding in grace? Go down and lie down with the uncircumcised! 20 Let them fall in the midst of those slain by the sword. The sword is meant for them. Drag along with Egypt all its pomp! 21 The mighty heroes from the middle of Sheol spoke with him, with him and his helpers. They have come down, they are lying there, the uncircumcised, those slain by the sword. 22 There is Assyria and all his commandments round about his grave: all of them, slain, fallen by the sword, 23 Assyrian, whose graves were given in the deepest pit, and his commandments are buried round about his grave. They are all slain, fallen by the sword, who once spread terror in the land of the living. 24 There is Elam and all his splendor round about his tomb, all of them slain, fallen by the sword, who went down uncircumcised into the land of the depths, which once spread their terror in the land of the living;

43 Jesus in Sheol 43 and they bear their disgrace with those who went down into the pit.25 In the midst of the slain, they gave him a camp with all its splendor around his grave. They are all uncircumcised, slain by the sword, because their horror was once spread in the land of the living; and they now bear their disgrace with those who went down into the pit. He is laid in the midst of the slain. 26 There is Meshech Tubal and all its splendor; All around his grave, all of them, uncircumcised, they were slain by the sword because they had spread their terror in the land of the living. 27 And they do not lie with the heroes who fell in ancient times, who went down into Sheol with their weapons of war, and who put their swords under their heads and whose shields are on their bones; for the horror of heroes had once reigned in the land of the living. 28 You too, Egypt, will be crushed in the midst of the uncircumcised, and will lie with those slain by the sword. 29 There is Edom, his kings, and all his princes, who in their heroism were laid with those slain by the sword; they lie with the uncircumcised and with those who have descended into the pit. 30 There are all the princes of the north and all the Sidonians, who went down to the slain and, in spite of the terror they inspired, were ashamed of their heroism; and they lie uncircumcised with those slain by the sword, bearing their disgrace with those who have gone down into the pit. 31 Pharaoh will see them all and be comforted in all their splendor. Pharaoh and all his army are slain by the sword, saith the Lord GOD. 32 For I have terrified him in the land of the living; And so he shall lie down in the midst of the uncircumcised with those slain by the sword, Pharaoh and all his splendor, saith the Lord GOD.

44 44 Jesus in Sheol God shows here which nations were in Sheol at that time. Today you would most likely see other nations and races there. First of all, Assyria and his entire army were presented. It seems as if each people has its own, dedicated place. In the middle lies the king and around him are the berths, graves of his army. In the land of the living (that's the name given to the surface of the earth, the living people, because everyone lives there when viewed from Sheol) everyone was afraid of them. But now they are in the deepest pit (jarköte bor). This is where Satan will also be cast for a thousand years: Isaiah 14, And you, you said in your heart: I will ascend to heaven, I will set up my throne high above the stars of God, and sit down on the meeting mountain in the far north. 14 I will go up to the heights of the clouds, to be like the Most High. 15 But you will be thrown down into Sheol, into the deepest pit. So in Isaiah 14:15 there is also this term deepest pit, the same place where the Assyrians are. This is at the bottom of hell. There the song about Satan recorded in Isaiah 14 is sung. In the 20th chapter of Revelation we also read of the captivity of Satan. Satan, the old serpent, will be locked in the abyss, the abyss, for 1000 years. The word Abyssos is the Greek term for the Hebrew word Tehom (depth). So Satan is locked in the depths, more precisely in Sheol! To come back to Ezekiel 32: In Sheol there is also all of Elam. This is the Persian province, the capital of which was Susa. As with Assyria, the souls of the Elamite people lie around the king's tomb.

45 Jesus in Sheol 45 Then follow Meshech-Tubal, Edom and the kings and princes of the north, all the peoples who had great power on earth. God showed Egypt that their great strength is of no use to them, because he has already carried other influential peoples down to Sheol. Abaddon The next word the Bible uses for the underground prisons is Abaddon. The basic verb from which the word comes is avad, the meaning of which is: destroy, annihilate, destroy. So the meaning of Abaddon is also: destroyer, annihilator. The Bible speaks of Abaddon as a place that differs from Sheol, but is very closely related to it. Abaddon is also not the same as death, but in almost every case the word appears together with Sheol or death: Proverbs 15:11 Sheol and the abyss (Abaddon) are open before the Lord, how much more the hearts of the children of men! Proverbs 27:20 Sheol and the abyss (Abaddon) are not satisfied, nor are man's eyes satisfied. Job 26,6 Sheol lies naked before him, and the abyss (Abaddon) has no cover.

46 46 Jesus in Sheol Job 28:22 The abyss (Abaddon) and death say: We only heard from hearsay about her (from wisdom) with our ears. So Sheol and Abaddon are not synonyms, but two different places. The Bible speaks of Abaddon not only as a geographical location, but like Sheol and Death, Abaddon is also a person. As can be seen in Job 28:22, he has ears with which he heard of wisdom. He has a mouth with which to say this. In Revelation this becomes even clearer: Revelation 9, And the fifth angel trumpeted: And I saw a star that had fallen from heaven to earth; and the key to the pit of the abyss was given to him. 2 And he opened the pit of the abyss; and smoke rose from the throat like the smoke of a great furnace, and the sun and the air were darkened with the smoke of the throat. 3 And locusts came out of the smoke upon the earth, and power was given to them, as the scorpions of the earth have power. 4 And they were told not to harm the grass of the earth, or anything green, or any tree, but to people who do not have the seal of God on their foreheads. 5 And they were commanded not to kill them, but to be tormented for five months; and their torment was that of a scorpion when it stings a man. 6 And in those days men will seek death and will not find it, and will desire to die, and death will flee from them. 7 And the forms of locusts were like horses prepared for battle, and

47 Jesus in Sheol 47 on their heads was like wreaths like gold, and their faces were like the faces of men; 8 Their hair was like the hair of a woman, and their teeth were like those of lions. 9 And they had armor like armor of iron, and the sound of their wings was like the sound of chariots with many horses running to battle; 10 and they have tails like scorpions and stings, and their power is in their tails to harm people for five months. 11 They have a king over them, the angel of the abyss; his name is Abaddon in Hebrew, and in Greek his name is Apollyon (i.e. destroyer, annihilator). So a star falls on earth, which can be a meteorite, or some other natural disaster. As a result, a thick smoke will rise from the interior of the earth, so that a semi-darkness arises on the earth, or only on a part of it. Together with the star, an angel will come to earth who will open the abyss. From this throat, together with the smoke, 200 million evil spirits (Revelation 9:16) will emerge. These will torment those who are not marked by God for five months. It will resemble a gigantic swarm of locusts. The king of these monsters will be an angel of the deep, named Abaddon. He will likely be the guide and overseer of the Abaddon underground location (principle of Sheol both as a geographic location and as an evil angel). An agreement will be reached between death and Abaddon: those who are tormented by the armies of Abaddon will not be brought by death. People will seek death during this time, but death will avoid them, i.e. suicide attempts will probably not succeed. In the Bible, the main underground powers are Sheol and death. Thus Sheol will be the chief of Abaddon. It seems

48 48 It is logical to assume Jesus in Sheol that this relates not only to the personal level, but also to the geographical level. When the Word of God speaks about the geographical location, he always mentions these two together, moreover so that Sheol is mentioned first. The Abaddon, the mouth of the abyss, seems to be part of the Sheol, a very deep pit. All of these monsters are locked in it until the day they have to come to the surface to torment people. Tartaros Another word for an underground prison is the word tartaros. This word occurs only in one place in the Bible, and only as a verb (ταρταρο ω tartaroo). Its meaning is: to throw or close in the tartaros. 2 Peter 2,4 For if God did not spare angels who had sinned, but kept them in dark caves of the abyss and handed them over to be kept for judgment ... These sinful angels are bound in the deep with very strong chains. They are only released on the day of the last judgment. We also read about this in Jude 6: And angels, who did not keep their domain but left their own habitation, he kept for the judgment of the great day with eternal fetters under darkness. The demons and most of the evil angels, on the other hand, are not tied up, they are still allowed to roam freely. Terrified, they asked Jesus if he had come to judge them prematurely.

49 Jesus in Sheol 49 Matthew 8:29 And, behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with you, Son of God? Did you come here to torment us ahead of time? They know, just like Satan, that their judgment is coming. They also roughly know the time in which this will happen. Until then, however, they can do what God allows them to do. The evil angels in Tartarus are, however, in a different situation. These beings are very likely to be those who came to the daughters of man and gave birth to giants for them. We read about it in Genesis chapter 6. Presumably God judged them with the flood. In any case, they left their God-appointed place prematurely, which is why they were not allowed to remain free until the judgment. They were locked up and have not been allowed anything since. They are just waiting for the final dish. The exact location of Tartarus is not known from the Bible. We only know so much that it is in the deep. (According to Greek mythology, it is part of Sheol.) Gehenna It is not our aim at this point to study all Bible passages about Gehenna. I just want to emphasize that Gehenna is not the same as Sheol. Rather, Gehenna is the lake of fire, the place of the last judgment. Isaiah 30:33 For the pit of fire has long been prepared, yes, it is also prepared for the king, deep and wide enough. The pyre in it has fire and wood is in abundance; the breath of the Lord will set it on fire like a stream of sulfur.

50 50 Jesus in Sheol Gehenna already exists, but it does not yet fulfill its function, for which God created it, it is still empty. It was created as a punishment for Satan and his angels: Matthew 25:41 Then he will also say to those on the left: Get away from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire that is prepared for the devil and his angels! The first inhabitants of Gehenna will be the Antichrist and the False Prophet. They will come there even before the millennial kingdom, directly after this age, after the events of the end of the world: Revelation 19:20 And the beast and the false prophet who was with him, who did the signs before him, were seized. by which he seduced those who accepted the mark of the beast and who worshiped his image, the two were thrown alive into the lake of fire, which burns with sulfur. Then it comes to the judgment of the nations. Here all people who are judged to be sinful come to the lake of fire. This also happens before the establishment of the earthly kingdom of Jesus Christ, the millennial kingdom. Matthew 25:41 Then he will also say to those on the left: Get away from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels. After Satan has been bound in Sheol for 1000 years, God releases him together with the evil spirits for a short time again. He will have a last great war against Jerusalem and its inhabitants, i.e. against Jesus Christ and his holy

51 Jesus in Sheol 51 lead. Thereafter, divine fire will come down from heaven, which will consume this great, rebellious army. Only now will Gehenna properly take on its function when it comes to the last judgment, which will also take place here, with Gehenna. Following the last great rebellion of Satan, he will be thrown into the lake of fire. He too will be a permanent resident of Gehenna. This fate also awaits the evil angels and demons who, like Satan, will be released from Sheol for a short time and take part in the great war. The evil spirit called Sheol is also mentioned separately. In addition, after the resurrection, people who have sided with Satan come into the lake of fire, i.e. those who are not in the book of life. As the last enemy, death will finally be thrown into Gehenna, with which the story of the present earth will end. So Sheol and Gehenna are not the same. Sheol is a temporary abode for the spirits (refaim) of dead people until God resurrects them in their bodies for the final judgment at the end of the millennial kingdom. Then the sinful people will be cast into Gehenna in their resurrected bodies. An important difference is that, unlike Sheol, sinners will be in their bodies in Gehenna: Matthew 5:29 But if your right eye causes you to fall away, pluck it out and throw it away. It is better for you that one of your limbs should perish and that the whole body should not be thrown into Gehenna. Matthew 10:28 And do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul; But fear him much more who can destroy body and soul in Gehenna.

52 52 Jesus in Sheol Due to the fact that Sheol, the evil angel, will come to Gehenna, it is even clearer that two different places are involved: Sheol will lose its function as a geographical location, but Gehenna will always exist. She only begins to take up her task when the sinful people in their fleshly bodies come from Sheol there. Isaiah 66, For as the new heaven and the new earth that I am making will stand before me, saith the LORD, so shall your family and name also endure. 23 And all flesh shall come one new moon after another, and one sabbath after another, to worship before me, saith the LORD. 24 And they shall go out and see the corpses of those who have backed away from me; for their worms will not die, nor will their fire be quenched, and they will be an abomination to all flesh. This passage is about the new heaven and the new earth. It shows us that the Gehenna will not be inside the new earth, but somewhere outside (they will go out). Designations such as the outer darkness, the weeping and the gnashing of teeth and where their worm does not die and the fire does not go out also refer to the Gehenna. Summary In the biblical passages listed so far, we have seen that Sheol consists of several parts. The spirits of the righteous resided in Abraham's bosom until the resurrection of Jesus. This part was at the top of the sheol. Located in the Abaddon

53 Jesus in Sheol 53