How did the Portuguese develop nasal vowels

Portuguese language

Portuguese ( português or in full, língua Portuguesa ) is a Romance language, originating in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe. It is the only official language of Portugal, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and Brazil, [6] , while co-official language status with in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is called a "Lusophon" ( lusófono ). As a result of the expansion during the colonial period, there is also a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese Creole speakers around the world. [7] Portuguese is part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several vulgar dialects of Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia and the County of Portugal, and has kept some Celtic phonology and its lexicon. [8] [9]

With around 215 to 220 million native speakers and 50 million L2 speakers, Portuguese has around 270 million speakers in total. It is usually listed as the sixth most spoken language and the third most spoken European language in the world in terms of native speakers. [10] As the most widely spoken language in South America [11] [12] and all of the southern hemisphere, [13] it is also the second most widely spoken language after Spanish, in Latin America, one of the 10 most widely spoken languages ​​in Africa, [14] and is one of the official languages ​​of the European Union, Mercosur, the Organization of American States, the Economic Community of West African States, the African Union and the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries, an international organization made up of all officially lusophone nations in the world. In 1997, a comprehensive academic study ranked the Brazilian Portuguese variant as one of the 10 most influential languages ​​in the world. [15] [16]

History [edit]

When the Romans in 216 BC When they came to the Iberian Peninsula, they brought with them the Latin language, from which all Romance languages ​​are derived. The language was spread by Roman soldiers, settlers, and merchants who built Roman cities largely near the settlements of earlier Celtic civilizations that had been founded long before the Romans arrived. Because of this, the language has held a relevant substratum of the much older Atlantic European megalithic culture [17] and Celtic culture, [18] Part of the Hispano-Celtic group of ancient languages. [19]

Between 409 and 711 AD, when the Roman Empire collapsed in Western Europe, the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Germanic peoples of the migration period. The occupiers, mainly Suebi, [20] [21] Visigoths and Buri [22], who originally spoke Germanic languages ​​quickly adopted the late Roman culture and vulgar Latin dialects of the peninsula and were fully integrated into the local population over the next 300 years. Some Germanic words from this period are part of the Portuguese lexicon. After the Moorish invasion from 711 onwards, Arabic became the administrative and common language in the conquered regions, but most of the remaining Christian population continued to speak a form of Romanticism commonly known as Mozarabic, which lasted three centuries longer in Spain. Like other Neo-Latin and European languages, Portuguese has a significant number of adopted loanwords from Greek, [23] especially in technical and scientific terminology. These borrowings came through Latin and later in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

Portuguese evolved from the medieval language now known by linguists as Galician-Portuguese, Old Portuguese, or Old Galician, the northwestern Medieval Kingdom of Galicia and the County of Portugal. [24]

Spoken area of ​​Galician-Portuguese (also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician) in the kingdoms of Galicia and León around the 10th century before the separation of Galician and Portuguese

In Latin administrative documents of the 9th century, written Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are recorded first. This phase is known as Proto-Portuguese and lasted from the 9th century until the county of Portugal became independent from the Kingdom of León, which by then had taken over Galicia.

In the first half of the Galician-Portuguese period (from the 12th to the 14th centuries), the language was increasingly used for documents and other written forms. For some time it was the preferred language for poetry in Christian Hispania, just as Occitan was the language of the poetry of the troubadours in France. The Occitan Digraphs lh and nh , used in its classical orthography, were adopted from the orthography of Portuguese, presumably by Gerald of Braga, [25] , a monk from Moissac who became bishop of Bragain Portugal in 1047, played an important role in modernizing written Portuguese according to classical Occitan norms. [26] Portugal became an independent kingdom in 1139 under King Afons I of Portugal. In 1290, King Denis of Portugal founded the first Portuguese university in Lisbon (the Estudos Gerais who later moved to Coimbra) and decreed that Portuguese, then simply referred to as the "common language", was known and officially used as the Portuguese language.

In the second period of ancient Portuguese, in the 15th and 16th centuries, the language was brought to many regions of Africa, Asia and America with the discoveries of Portuguese. By the mid-16th century, it had become Portuguese lingua franca in Asia and Africa, not only for colonial administration and trade, but also for communication between local officials and Europeans of all nationalities.

Its spread was aided by intermarriage between Portuguese and locals, as well as its association with Roman Catholic missionary efforts that resulted in the formation of Creole languages ​​such as Kristang (from the word cristão , "Christian"). . The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century. Some Portuguese-speaking Christian communities in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Indonesia have retained their language even after their isolation from Portugal.

The end of the old Portuguese period was with the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral marked by Garcia de Resende in 1516. The early periods of modern Portuguese, spanning the period from the 16th century to the present, were marked by an increase in the number of words taught borrowed from classical Latin and classical Greek due to the Renaissance (learned words which were borrowed from Latin also came from the Latin Renaissance, the form of Latin at that time), which greatly enriched the lexicon. Most of the educated Portuguese also spoke Latin; and so they easily adopted Latin words in their writing - and eventually their language - in Portuguese. [27]

Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes once called Portuguese "the sweet and lovable language" while Brazilian poet Olavo Bilac called it última flor do Lácio, inculta e bela ("the last flower of Lazio, naive and beautiful"). Portuguese is named after Luís Vaz de Camões, one of the greatest literary figures in the Portuguese language and author of the Portuguese epic The Lusiads, also known as the "language of the Camões". [28] [29] [30]

In March 2006, the Portuguese Language Museum, an interactive museum of Portuguese language, was founded in São Paulo, Brazil, the city with the world's largest number of Portuguese speakers. [31] The museum is the first of its kind in the world. [31] In 2015 the museum was partially destroyed in a fire, [32] but restored and reopened in 2020.

Geographical distribution