How are commas used in conjunction

Commas for conjunctions

When are commas used in conjunctions?

When using commas in conjunction with conjunctions, you have to be careful in the German language. There are basically connecting words that require a comma and some that are used without, i.e. instead of, a comma. In detail, the usage looks like this:

  1. A comma must be used in the following cases:
    • In the case of conjunctions that express opposites or affirmations, such as B .:
      • but
        • "I don't have time today, but tomorrow."
      • however / yes
        • "You will certainly get an appointment, but you have to wait a long time."
      • Not
        • "Your children will start school next year, not this year."
      • rather
        • "I don't want coffee, I'd rather a dessert."
      • much more
        • "His father is not so strict, he is very worried."
      • alone
        • "You don't have to read all the books, this alone is enough."
      • in fact
        • "I urgently need the documents, and I need them today."
    • With certain combinations of connective words such as B .:
      • not ... but
        • "Not only luck, but also skill is required."
      • the ... the
        • "The higher the income, the more taxes you pay."
      • on the one hand on the other hand
        • "On the one hand, it's a good idea, and on the other, it's a huge effort."
      • partly ... partly
        • "The lessons consist partly of conversation, partly of grammar exercises."
      • on the one hand on the other hand
        • "On the one hand it's a tough job, on the other hand it's well paid."
      • whether ... whether
        • "Whether green or yellow doesn't matter to me."
      • indeed ... but
        • "The car is beautiful, but also very expensive."
      • fifty - fifty
        • "The cake is half cherry, half peach."
  2. The following conjunctions do not have a comma (unless they introduce subordinate clauses or combine main clauses):
    • and
      • "We ate schnitzel and fried potatoes and salad."
      • Exception when combining main clauses of the same rank; a comma can - but does not have to - be used here:
        • "The food was very good (,) and we didn't have to wait long for it."
    • or
      • "Green or red is both beautiful."
      • Exception also for main clauses of equal rank; a comma is optional:
        • "I can cook with pleasure (,) or we go out to eat pizza."
    • as
      • "Peter's bike is newer than Elkes."
      • But with a comma in subordinate clauses:
        • "It took longer than we assumed."
    • how
      • "I felt like I was reborn."
      • Also here with a comma for subordinate clauses:
        • "It happened exactly as he predicted."

Further explanations on the subject of "commas in conjunctions"

The following explanations, which could also be interesting and helpful, fit the topic of "Use of the comma in conjunctions (connecting words) in the German language":