What are some dangers to long hair

Perm

Is a perm harmful?

Various chemical compounds give the individual hair hold and structure. So-called sulfur bridges, which connect the individual keratin strands in the hair, are mainly responsible for this. In order to reshape the hair, it is necessary to break these bridges so that the hair becomes soft and malleable. The next step is to fix the new shape by reconnecting the sulfur compounds. Chemical permanent wave preparations are necessary for this.

So the question arises: is a perm harmful? The answer is yes. Just like dyeing, perm attacks hair and can make it dry and brittle. However, today's products are much less harmful than those that were used in the past.

Nevertheless, the hair needs care after a perm. Cures, masks and conditioners for damaged hair provide the hair with moisture and help prevent split ends and hair breakage. Olive oil is also well suited for the care of permed hair. Simply massage into damp hair and after a few minutes rinse off with a mild shampoo.

This is how the perm principle works

The perm works according to this principle:

  • To solve: The sulfur bridges are opened with a thiol-containing reducing agent. Thiol is an organic compound that releases hydrogen atoms to the sulfur bonds in a chemical reaction (reduction), which causes them to loosen or dissolve.
  • to shape: Curlers put the hair in the desired new shape.
  • Oxidation / fixing: a fixing liquid (hydrogen peroxide or alkali bromate) re-links the sulfur bridges so that the hair is stabilized in the new shape.

Perm - types

The renaissance of perm - women are currently rediscovering this technique, which was particularly popular during the 1980s and 1990s. But it's not just the female gender that is increasingly opting for perms. Men also want more and more artificial curls - at least since Jon Snow, alias Kit Harington, caused a sensation in the cult series Game of Thrones with his casual, erotic mane.

There are different types of perms. Which one is best for you depends on several factors: Is the hair thick or thin? Are they healthy or damaged and porous? What result would you like to achieve with the perm - large curls or small ones?

Do you want soft waves or is it more about adding volume to your hair? Then a light permanent wave or a hairline wave is sufficient. Hair length is also important. For example, perming long hair requires a different approach than short hair. A distinction is made between the following types of permanent waves today:

Cold wave

In the past, you needed heat to keep your hair permanently in shape. However, the much gentler cold wave has been common since 1947. Depending on the pH value of the permanent waving agent, a distinction is made between acidic, alkaline and neutral preparations.

The majority of modern perms are in the mildly alkaline pH range of approximately 7.6 to 9.0. With it, even thicker hair can be permanently waved. A strongly alkaline perm with a pH value of over 9 is rarely used today because it attacks the hair structure and skin too much.

A neutral perm is particularly recommended for damaged, sensitive hair such as bleached hair. However, the degree of reshaping is usually a little less than that of the mildly alkaline permanent wave.

The acid perm has been banned since the 90s after allergies and sensitizations to the waving agent glycerol monothioglycolate occurred several times. Foam perm
A foam perm works on the same principle as a liquid, mildly alkaline preparation. It offers particular advantages for the user because the foam is easier to handle. You can see immediately which parts of the hair have already been treated. In addition, no excess perm liquid can run into the face and cause skin irritation there.

2-phase preparations

2-phase preparations combine permanent wave liquid and cream. The cream contains a more intensive combination of active ingredients and is applied to the hairline. The lower dosed liquid is intended for gentle treatment of the often attacked tips. The creamy consistency also prevents the permanent wave preparation from stretching.

Neck and volume wave

Only certain areas of the hair are treated here. With the approach wave, only the hairline is curled in order to give the hairstyle better stability or to treat areas that have already grown out. The volume wave, in which very large curlers are used, gives larger areas more stand and shape, so that the hairstyle as a whole has more volume.

Water wave

Water can also change the structure of the hair, but only to a very limited extent. The hair shape is not stabilized solely by sulfur bridges, but also by other chemical compounds, for example hydrogen and salt bridges. These relatively weak bonds can already be broken by pure water. This is what the principle of the water wave is based on. However, the reshaping that can be achieved with this is only of a very limited duration - just a little moisture is enough to dissolve the curls.

How long does a perm last?

After an alkaline perm, you can enjoy your curls or waves for about six months. In the first few weeks after visiting the hairdresser, however, the perm often loses some of its elasticity. Neutral perms last a little shorter, water waves a few days at best. Perm - large curls or small curls?

The type of curler decides what kind of curls you end up with with the perm. If you want big, soft curls, the barber will twist your hair into thick curlers. For small curls he uses thin ones. In addition, a good hairdresser masters different winding techniques, which also affect the overall result.

Perm for long hair

With long hair, hairdressers often use a special winding technique to ensure an even overall result. Because the more hair there is on the roller, the larger its circumference. The curl is less pronounced at the roots than in the tip of the hair. It is different with spiral wrapping, in which long hair is twisted in a spiral on special curlers.

Perm for short hair

Short hair can also be shaped with a perm. The goal is usually to give the hairstyle more volume and stability. As a rule, thin curlers are used, which correspond to the shorter hair length.

Perm for medium length hair

Medium-length hair, as is typical for the popular bob, can also be spiced up with a perm. A volume wave gives the hairstyle more hold and firmness. Soft waves or corkscrew curls with the help of cold waves give chin-length and shoulder-length hair new accents.

Remove perm

As the name suggests, the permanent wave is a permanent reshaping of the hair. Those who no longer like their artificial curls can really only wait for them to grow out and hang out over time or cut them off. If this takes you too long, all you have to do is repeat the chemical hair reshaping process. This time with the aim of straightening the hair.

But this is not advisable, after all, the hair is already stressed by the perm. A second chemical treatment stresses them again and can lead to visible damage to the hair. It is therefore safer to live with the perm, at least temporarily.

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