What are the most interesting phenomena
Psycho effects: you should know these
I take that Jojo effect and Placebo effect do you know. But have you ever dated Streisand effect belongs? From Bystander effect maybe? Or from Halo effect? Just. There are a bunch of them Psychoeffects, especially with names that hardly anyone can remember. It's a shame actually. Because they describe numerous everyday phenomena and contain many important findings, for example from psychology or sociology. Incidentally, on the right you can see a classic optical effect: You are observing a green point that is circling. In fact, only the magenta dots flash in turn. Incidentally, during my research I had a lot Aha effects - and you may also have them in the coming days ...
Important Psycho Effects To Know About
You should know the following psychoeffects and phenomena - despite their sometimes cryptic names. We list them in alphabetical order:
- The aha effect (also Eureka experience) describes the moment when, after pondering for a long time, one finally understands a thing or recognizes the solution to the problem.
- The anchor effect is a type of cognitive disorder. In order to be able to measure the value of a thing, our brain searches for comparative values. If it does not find this, a number drawn entirely out of thin air is sufficient for it as a reference point. The psychologists Clayton R. Critcher and Thomas Gilovich proved that this is the case: guests at a restaurant called “Studio 97” spent an average of $ 8 more in it than guests at the restaurant called “Studio 17”.
- The assimilation effect (also Alignment effect or Reflected glory effect) comes from marketing and arises when someone rates a product better because it is marketed together with a (positive) product, the so-called co-branding. For example: after the iPod comes the iPhone. Of course, the effect also works for people in the form of an image transfer. That is why politicians are so happy to be photographed together with winners and other sympathizers in election years.
- The Barnum Effect With the Barnum effect (also Forer effect) it is simply about the fact that people have a tendency to accept vague and general statements about them as an accurate description.
- The justification effect discovered the two psychologists Ellen Langer and Robert Cialdini. Apparently people react enormously to reasons or to the word "because". Even if a justification is tautological and flimsy, people do what was asked of them before. And now please read on because this is good for you.
- The broken windows effect is what the Dutchman Kees Keizer described together with colleagues from the University of Groningen. Roughly speaking, it means: If there is only one house with a few broken window panes on a street, it doesn't take long before the whole apartment block falls into disrepair.
- The bullwhip effect ( also Whiplash effect) is considered to be a central problem in supply chain management. He says: In such supply chains (dealers, wholesalers, producers, suppliers) the demand at the higher levels of the supply chain can fluctuate enormously, although there is hardly any demand for the products themselves from the dealer. This was discovered by Forrester in the 1950s, but the term was probably coined by Procter & Gamble when they were investigating the demand for Pampers diapers.
- The butterfly effect (or Butterfly effect) is actually just an (unrealistic) theory. After that, the flapping of the wings of a single butterfly can trigger a cyclone on the other side of the globe.
- The bystander effect means: In every emergency, the likelihood that someone will be helped decreases as the number of people standing around increases. The social psychologists Latané and Darley have investigated and formulated a five-step process that every passer-by goes through before helping an accident victim. At each of these levels, other people form an increasing obstacle.
- The Clooney Effect goes back to the actor of the same name George Clooney. Since the acquisition of a holiday villa on Lake Como, the real estate market on Lake Maggiore (which is practically around the corner) has been booming. The houses around Como also suddenly became more expensive. Brad Pitt also has a vacation home there.
- The Doppler Effect was discovered by Christian Doppler in the middle of the 19th century when he tried to explain the colors of the stars by the fact that their own movement influences the perceived light (which is not true). Today, the Doppler effect is more of an acoustic phenomenon: when a vehicle drives past, the pitch of the noise changes.
- The Dutch Admiral Paradigm is a kind of citation cartel or reputation effect. Scientists have observed several times that mutual praise can inspire careers. The effect got its name from two Dutch cadets who, before going to war, swore to report good things about each other's deeds. In the end, the two were the youngest admirals in the Netherlands.
- The fish pond effect (also Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect (BFLPE)) occurs when students in a class with underperforming classmates develop a higher level of motivation to learn. The reason: Your talents stand out more there, are rated better, which motivates them even more. There should be parents who send their children to schools for precisely this reason, whose students have a rather poor reputation.
- The framing effect shows how much the environment or the way in which information is presented to us influences our decision. The best example: that half full Glass. Depending on whether it is presented as “half full” or “half empty”, the brain records it as a gain or a loss. Another example: consumers prefer to buy meat, that 75 percent from lean meat exists as that which 25 percent fat contains.
- The gecko effect shows that something that sticks strongly, not everything will necessarily stick. Geckos can easily stick to their feet anywhere, while nothing sticks to their feet themselves.
- The grapefruit effect warns of dangerous interactions between fruit juices and medicines. For example, a glass of grapefruit juice can turn a regular tablet into a fatal overdose.
- The halo effect was discovered by Edward Lee Thorndike and describes a perceptual error in which individual characteristics of a person appear so dominant that they create an overwhelming overall impression. For example: Anyone who is particularly fat is primarily perceived by their body size - and is therefore immediately under general suspicion of being excessive, lazy, weak-willed or even stupid.
- The Hawthorne Effect goes back to an experiment in 1924 in the Hawthorne works of Western Electric in Cicero / Illinois. The researchers wanted to know whether improved lighting conditions could increase productivity. At first it looked like it, but then it turned out that the test subjects only worked better because they knew that they were being watched. At the same time, the effect shows that people have a learned view of their maximum performance and that this limit is often chosen arbitrarily. One can assume that the Hawthorne workers gave their best in the twilight. But every time the researchers announced an experiment, they were able to increase their creativity.
- The Isaiah Effect goes back to the biblical prophecies of the prophet Isaiah and means: Such prophecies direct our attention to the future consequences of our actions today. Nevertheless, we can choose for ourselves which fate should happen to us by deciding one way or the other at this moment.
- The yo-yo effect describes the unwanted and rapid weight gain after a diet. Often the new weight is even higher than the starting weight.
- The Kennedy Effect goes back to the book of the same name by Nikolaus B. Enkelmann and describes colloquially how one can achieve power and influence with charisma.
- The cobra effect dates from the time of British colonial rule in India. Back then there was a plague of snakes. The British governor then placed a bounty on every cobra that was shot. Effect: The smart Indians bred the snakes in order to then behead them and collect them. When that was discovered, the premium was withdrawn. Second effect: people released any cobras they still owned. The plague that followed was worse than the previous one.
- The Kuleshov Effect was first described by the Soviet director and film theorist Lev Kuleshov: Because the brain tries to combine images (or, as in the film, successive shots) into contexts, even if they do not belong together, we do not interpret them neutrally. Kuleshov's colleague, Ivan Mosschuchin, took this assembly art to the extreme. The same neutral face of an actor was repeatedly cut against with other images - the effect promptly changed. Face and a full soup plate: hungry. Face and shining sun: happy. Face and funeral: sad. Psychological studies show that the same thing happens on the street or when we meet other people and judge them immediately.
- The Lucifer Effect goes back to the book of the same name by the US social psychologist Philip Zimbardo. In it, he explains how susceptible we are to the temptations of "the dark side". Zimbardo is known worldwide as the head behind him Stanford Prison Experiment, in which a group of volunteer students was randomly divided into "guards" and "inmates" to work and live in a simulated prison. The experiment had to be stopped within a week because the students had turned into brutal, sadistic guards or emotionally broken prisoners.
- The Matthew Effect Based on a famous quote from the biblical parable, sociologists derive from the talents entrusted to us in the Gospel of Matthew (chapter 25, verse 29): “For whoever has will be given, and he will have abundance; but whoever does not have what he has will also be taken from him. " The effect says that happiness and success are contagious. Once there, they multiply almost automatically and exponentially. In 1968, the US sociologist Robert K. Merton also formulated this principle of positive feedback as success breeds success. At that time, however, Menton related his thesis to the citation frequency of well-known science authors: He was able to prove that prominent authors were cited far more often than unknown ones due to their level of awareness, which in turn increased the prominence of the gurus even further.
- The McGurk Effect goes back to the developmental psychologist Harry McGurk, who found out that too much sensory information (perception of an acoustic speech signal and simultaneous observation of lip movements) disturbs our perception, which then creates strange realities: We hear something different because we believe we see it.
- The Obelix Effect is named after the Gaul of the same name in the Asterix comic, who always has to watch enviously as his friends fortify themselves at the potion - only he gets nothing. Transferred to everyday office life: Anyone who is never asked by their colleagues whether they would like to come along for lunch experiences the effect.
- The placebo effect describes that tablets that contain no active ingredients can still heal - just because the patient believes in their effect. The opposite of that is by the way Nocebo effect: There are undesirable (harmful) side effects because the patient is expecting them.
- The Pygmalion Effect (also Rosenthal effect) was described by the psychologists Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson in 1968. At that time, you informed teachers that, based on their previous good performance, they would be able to take over a class made up of the most intelligent students in the coming school year. At the end of the school year, these classes were actually better than all the others, their grades, even the IQ of the students was over 20 points higher. However, the psychologists had lied. The classes were just a random selection. But because students believed they were among the best and the teachers also trusted them more, the performance and learning curve rose.
- The Rajkov Effect goes back to the Russian psychotherapist Vladimir Rajkov and is also known as the "method of borrowed genius". Rajkov put his subjects in a state of deep hypnosis and suggested to them that they had been an outstanding head of history through reincarnation. Interestingly, in this state they were able to develop approximately their skills that were otherwise far beyond their own.
- The reactance effect describes the psychological tendency of people, groups or organizations to defend themselves against developments or even to continue to carry out newly forbidden actions - secretly or obviously.
- The recent effect (also Primary effect or Primacy Recency Effect) is a short-term memory phenomenon. In short, it ensures that we remember younger information better than older information. For this reason, the most important statement of a lecture should always come at the end (or be repeated there). And that's why the advertised product is always shown as a closer in a commercial.
- The Ringelmann Effect describes that people in the group achieve a lower performance than would be expected based on the summed up individual performance. This does not mean lazing around socially, but rather the loss of motivation and the resulting drop in performance, which, interestingly, can occur in groups.
- The slashdot effect occurs when, for example, an entry in a previously little-known blog is picked up by a large website, which leads to an enormous number of visitors within minutes - sometimes even until the server collapses under the load. Then the page slashed.
- The Streisand Effect is a phenomenon on the internet: Trying to remove negative information about yourself on the web can lead to it spreading even more. Instead of the information being suppressed, it spreads even more through so-called reflections and citations. The effect owes its name to Barbra Streisand, who sued photographer Kenneth Adelman and the website Pictopia.com for 50 million US dollars because there was an aerial view of her house among 12,000 other photos from the coast of California. Adelman claimed he photographed the beachfront property to document coastal erosion for the California Coastal Records Project. Journalist Paul Rogers later noted that the picture of Streisand's house was very popular on the internet.
- The Valins Effect describes the phenomenon that physical reactions, such as increased heart rate when looking at a picture, can influence the evaluation of this picture.
- The Veblen Effect (also Snob effect) is a consumption effect that can be observed above all in the case of so-called prestige or luxury goods. In short, there is a reciprocal demand reaction for these goods: although the price rises, the demand also rises.
- The demonstration effect means: Just when you want to show a normal case to others, a state of emergency occurs - it does not succeed.
- Christmas effect Couple researchers call the phenomenon that regularly creates tension in long-distance relationships: Both have a precise idea of how the next meeting should go - but unfortunately each is a different one. Disappointment and arguments are then programmed when they meet again.
- The Werther Effect describes an imitation phenomenon. In this case, extensive media reports of a suicide trigger a significant number of copycat suicides. The origin of the effect goes back to the Goethe novel “The Sorrows of Young Werther” from 1774. At that time, the book triggered a real suicide epidemic among young people.
- The Zeigarnik effect goes back to the psychologist Bluma W. Zeigarnik, who found in 1927 that we better remember unanswered questions or unanswered tasks. That is why the Zeigarnik effect is also used Cliffhanger called: With its help, readers are then, for example, made to look at an advertisement or continue reading an article because they want to know how it ...
- The zero price effect describes a typical salesman trick. The offer is coupled with a supposed free bonus, a so-called decoy offer. The online bookseller Amazon has done good business with it: Above a certain order value, the shipping of goods was free. As a result, many customers ordered more books than they actually needed, just to save postage.
Other readers will find these articles interesting:
In turn, many more detailed articles are linked to the individual thought traps and perceptual errors. Ultimately, the bestseller emerged from these lists: “I think, so I'm crazy” (DTV, July 2011). The book has sold more than 50,000 copies and has been translated into several languages (including Russian and Turkish).
Jochen Mai is the founder and editor-in-chief of the career bible. The author of several books lectures at the TH Köln and is a sought-after keynote speaker, coach and consultant.
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