Is Xavier's Ranchi good for English honors

which the order already counted in 1955, a suffering and praying alter ego had been imparted by Jacqueline de Decker, to which she was also allowed to write. She herself prayed and suffered for Mother Teresa and in 1996 - one year before Mother Teresa's death - after (allegedly) forty operations, she handed over the management of the (allegedly) now more than 3,000 sick and suffering employees to Sister Anand. In 1974, Mother Teresa decided to improve the care of the missionaries through prayer, and for each of her branches she encouraged prayer help and dedication to work in "normal" monastic communities. With the help of Father Georges Gorrée, the chairman of the French Association of Lay Employees, 400 "sponsored monasteries" are said to have been found within a year. 3. From Calcutta to Oslo Calcutta and India The rapid spread of Mother Teresa's order in the initial phase was mainly related to two factors: the devastating economic and social situation in India from 1950 to 1990 and Mother Teresa's early media presence thanks to her good relationships to the government and to the archbishop. To explain the causes of the misery in India and the government countermeasures along its five-year plans would go too far. In connection with Mother Teresa, however, it should be pointed out that her hagiographers have kept silent about the aid measures of the Indian government as well as the development aid money of Western nations, the donations and aid measures of international development aid organizations and Christian charitable institutions or the services of Western social workers and numerous, including Protestant, social workers , Missionary Order. In this way it was suggested to the western public that only Mother Teresa had a heart for the misery in India and shook the world awake. To name just one example, the German government had built a steelworks in Rourkela in the course of development aid - independently of Mother Teresa, of course - for almost half a billion Deutschmarks in Rourkela, in which 37,000 people found work. In fact, around 1980 more than 200 national and international aid organizations were deployed in Calcutta alone, including India's largest aid organization, the “Ramakrishna Mission”. Mother Teresa's branches were relatively small and (intentionally) disproportionately poorly equipped, but they were best known worldwide and therefore had ample funds. Despite the limited effectiveness of Mother Teresa's groups, the Indian government worked with her from the start. Later, their worldwide media presence brought beneficial donations to the poor country. The early pictures of Mother Teresa and her missionaries around the world, earning them unlimited respect and sympathy, show the misery of the poorest of Calcutta, where Mother Teresa began working with her missionary order. After the partition of India, thousands of refugees from Pakistan and Bangladesh settled in the Greater Calcutta region without a roof over their heads or a job. They lived on the streets, canal banks or railway embankments and were called «pavement dwellers». In 1974 it was estimated at 30,000–40,000 people. In the approx. 3000 slums of Calcutta, 2.3 million registered citizens lived in wooden and tin huts or fabric and paper tents. On average 4.1 people had a room of 3.5 square meters at their disposal, in 1971 there were around 400,000 people in some slum areas in one square kilometer, in the city of Calcutta the average was around 30,000. Of the adults there were 90–95 Percent illiterate. The population increased by almost 60 percent from 1961 to 1971 and by another 30 percent by 1980. In 1961 the government set up an organization that set up a slum remediation program and became a state development authority. This also worked with non-governmental and with Christian welfare organizations (also internationally). At her request, the city of Calcutta left an empty pilgrims' home at the Kali Temple in Kalighat to Mother Teresa on August 15, 1954, so that she could set up a dying home for the poor there. The city paid her 150,000 rupees annually to cover the running costs. Mother Teresa chose the furnishings so primitively that the home was able to start operating a week later, on the feast of the "Immaculate Heart of Mary", under the name of "Nirmal Hriday" ("Immaculate Heart"). Men and women lay separately in two large bedrooms on low metal cots. Each patient was given a plastic pad - no sheet or blanket - a pillow and a death gown. Only those who were without relatives and therefore without help and were not admitted to any hospital were allowed to die here. About half of the patients died because of inadequate medical care. To this day it is Mother Teresa's most famous institution, which many prominent personalities had to visit and which attracted many voluntary, unpaid helpers from all over the world. The early press photos of happy sisters trying to enable smiling dying people to die in human dignity by the simplest means became world-famous and can still be studied today in Mother Teresa's picture biographies. Accusations that the sisters had carried out emergency baptisms on the dying patient - usually non-Christians - was indignant to Mother Teresa, who was dependent on a harmonious relationship with the government. Respect the various religions and their respective death and burial rituals. The sisters say they operate around 150 Nirmal Hriday-type death houses worldwide. Mother Teresa's next project was also made possible by the government, more precisely through her contact with B. C. Roy, doctor and government director of West Bengal. Calcutta and India 43 was a children's home - "Shishu Bhavan" - which opened on September 23, 1955. It was the first of (supposedly) about a hundred more worldwide. It included a school, a boarding wing and a nursing home for sick or handicapped children and babies. In 1975 about 5000 children are said to have lived in 61 homes. Initially, the funding was provided through individual donor sponsorships, which were arranged internationally (mainly by the Catholic Church), and after 1975 through a "World Child World Fare Fund", which distributed the donations evenly across the houses around the world. Since Mother Teresa fought against abortion all her life, she later set up delivery rooms in the homes for women who wanted to leave their baby behind with the missionaries. The order later also participated in the international mediation of adoptions through organizations such as “pro infante”. Another focus of the work of the order in India was the fight against leprosy, which is medically not a problem because it is easy to treat with medication, but which in many parts of India was considered contagious and incurable and the exclusion of the person affected from his family and his social life Environment - his job anyway. The government was of course concerned with the problem itself and initiated inter alia. a leprosy fund and a leprosy day. At Mother Teresa's request, she even offered her a piece of land for a leprosy clinic. In the meantime, in September 1957, Mother Teresa was setting up what is known as a “mobile leprosy clinic”: an ambulance vehicle - a gift from the USA - and 10,000 rupees from an electrical company was enough for her. Périer consecrated the vehicle. A (Hindu) leprosy specialist from the Carmichael Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Dr. Sen, instructed the nurses in the treatment methods, and as early as January 1958 around 600 patients were regularly receiving medical treatment. The press reported about it abroad, and so the number of mobile leprosy clinics increased through donations. As early as March 1959, Périer's mother Teresas 44 3. From Calcutta to Oslo was able to inaugurate the first “permanent” leprosy clinic (Gandhiji Prem Nivas Leprosy Center), a center in Titagarh 240 lepers were present. Funding was provided by the Volkart Foundation Trust, and the city council made the land available. Mother Teresa's order was welcomed everywhere in India as early as 1959, when it received permission to settle outside Calcutta, both with the responsible governments and with the responsible dioceses. Her good contacts with international welfare organizations proved to be beneficial everywhere and made her order a sought-after institution. Mother Teresa first sent her sisters to Ranchi, New Delhi, Jhansi, and Bombay. Each of its institutions received the greatest public attention. For example, the Swiss Ambassador Cuttat, the Indian Health Minister Krishna Menon and the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru were present at the opening of a children's home in New Delhi. In 1964, before Mother Teresa's order became a society under papal law and was allowed to expand internationally, the Indian government gave her 34 acres of land to build a leper city. The money for this came from international donation institutions, including German carolers. At this point in time, Mother Teresa was so prominent around the world that her Pope Paul VI. gave the white luxury limousine of his visit to India as a present, which she auctioned off publicly and in this way benefited the project in a way that was effective in the press. Over 30 buildings were erected within a short period of time, including a hospital. The Pontifical Work for the Propagation of the Faith in Germany (“Missio”) financed the construction of a monastery and a chapel. A Pope Paul VI avenue, stables, a poultry farm, a brick factory, living and working huts were built, kitchen gardens and fish ponds were laid out so that the sick, according to the idea, could take care of themselves with light work such as rooms, weaving or braiding . Doctors and nurses who did not belong to the order - Calcutta and India 45 - mostly worked there free of charge out of idealism. The complex was called "Shanti Nagar", "City of Peace". Neither here nor in the dying, hospitals or children's homes was the work done professionally, which was always welcomed by Mother Teresa's hagiographers, because it expresses her downright naive basic trust in God. God will always take care of his work in a way that borders on miracles, because his aching heart longs for relief through love, for example Spink: “Whether medical knowledge and skills, the necessary medicine and equipment were available was entirely by divine providence dependent, as did the lives of the sisters themselves. If more and more inmates of the house where they died, it was not because "Nirmal Hriday" could offer better medical help than the hospitals. The trained doctors and nurses who worked there on a voluntary basis were appalled that the most basic hygiene rules, which were supposed to protect the nurses from infection and the "patients" from mutual contamination, were not being observed. The missionaries were not allowed to wear gloves when they touched the maggot-eaten bodies of the dying, nor did they have to keep the lepers at arm's length, because they were looking after the body of Christ. So it was not so important how proficiently or effectively someone acted, but how much love he put into it. […] The Missionaries of Charity were not social workers. The mere suggestion that this was so was enough to cause [Mother Teresa] grief, for her job was to be "contemplative people in the world." (P. 92 f.) From the Third to the Second and First World Since 1960, ten years after the order was founded, Mother Teresa was regularly on trips around the world. This year she flew to the USA and Europe for the first time to thank her for the great support she received from the Vatican and from Catholic aid agencies, including the German Carits Association and the Oxford Famine Relief Committee. 46 3. From Calcutta to Oslo would have; She was also invited to give a lecture on behalf of the National Council of Catholic Women (NCCW) foreign aid committee in Las Vegas. This organization represented approximately 10 million women in 120 dioceses across the United States. How such contacts came about, who helped her and why, cannot be read in either the hagiographers or the press, but any number of examples could show that Mother Teresa quickly gained the trust of the most respected Indian and international institutions and their representatives enjoyed. Already in 1962 she received the second highest award in India, the Lotus Order ("Padma Shri"), from her friend Jawaharlal Nehru. In the same year she also received the “Magsa y say Prize for International Understanding” (20,000 US dollars) from the hands of the Philippine President - 83 percent of the population in the Philippines was Catholic at the time - and the “Good” prize Samaritans »in Boston. After her order received the status of a community under papal law, Mother Teresa proselytized the world. She founded her first foreign branch in Venezuela in 1965 at the invitation of Archbishop Críspulo Benitez of Barquisimento. Mother Teresa was recommended to him by James Robert Knox, at that time still Internuntius (papal ambassador) in India, later Archbishop of Melbourne. The facility in Cocorote was financed by Governor Bartolomé Romero Aguero. Mother Teresa sent some sisters whose missionary services to needy Catholics included such diverse areas as sewing and English courses, pastoral preparation for First Communion, and nursing. The next branches were set up in Colombo (Sri Lanka) and Tabora (Tanzania). The Order has been in Rome since 1968 at the invitation of Pope Paul VI, who had sent Mother Teresa a plane ticket and given $ 10,000 as a gift so that she could send some missions to Rome. Mother Teresa was proud that her order now belonged to the 1200 or so women's orders in Rome, and over the years she built her Roman house into the western center of her administration. This was followed by branches in Boruke (New South Wales / Australia, 1969), Melbourne (1970), Jordan (1970), London (1970), New York (South Bronx, 1971) and Belfast (1971), where the members of the order were advised in 1973 to to leave the city again. Mother Teresa sent these sisters on to Ethiopia, where they would tolerate Emperor Haile Selassie. The building there was made available to them by a company director, and the sisters were supposed to take care of them themselves. Mother Teresa did not grant any subsidy to any of her branches and was only supposed to abandon this principle for houses in communist countries. She was only willing to move into a new house if the financing did not burden the monastic treasury and the sisters could live on invitation, for example by the responsible bishop or the government. According to her own statements, Mother Teresa's order in 1967 included around 250 sisters and 20 branches in India. In 1975 the order is said to have served 1135 sisters in 90 houses. 1979 - the year Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize - 1187 sisters, 411 novices and 120 postulants are said to have lived in 158 branches worldwide. Their proselytizing program mainly comprised medical and social services at the simplest level and provided for relief measures such as night shelters, feeding the poor, nursing and childcare. Mother Teresa founded more and more branches all over the western world and therefore had to expand her concept of the "poorest of the poor", which was originally related to the material need in the Third World. In the western world, they included people who lived in the "poverty of the spirit" (Matthew 5: 3), were socially isolated, were on the margins of society, found themselves in deep despair or were taking drugs. The representatives of the crucified Christ suffered less physically than mentally in the West, according to Mother Teresa. They thirsty for love, and this love should be given to them by 48 3. From Calcutta to Oslo Missionaries. Their love services, however, remained roughly the same in the West: feeding the poor, night quarters, care for the sick and children, religious instruction, provided the missionaries and the poor they care for were generally poor in foreign languages.With a new type of dying home, especially celebrated by the American public, Mother Teresa responded to the fears that were triggered in the western population in the course of the education campaigns against the then hardly researched immunodeficiency disease AIDS by addressing the physical and psychological needs of the sick and had the sisters perform appropriate works of charity: in 1985, the year in which Ronald Reagan awarded her the United States Medal of Freedom and thus the highest state honor, she set up the first United States AIDS house in Greenwich Village, in the Press heralded as the “miracle of Manhattan”. A doctor from Washington University Hospital had made Mother Teresa aware of the suffering of AIDS sufferers. Since the furnishings of the house did not differ significantly from that of their death houses and in this case also served the same purpose, it was able to start work within a very short time - on Christmas Day - under the name "Gift of Love". Mother Teresa asked for her first three doomed patients during a visit to Sing Sing prison. Only AIDS patients were to be admitted who were destitute and lonely, who had death in mind, were not allowed to stay in any clinic and were therefore among the poorest of the poor. The home provided space for fourteen sick people who could only receive poor medical care and five nurses. The patients were prepared for their death by the missionaries through catechesis and religious activities, but no one is said to have been forced to participate. At Ronald Reagan's request, the second AIDS house was opened in Washington in 1986. The five hectare property and the building were made available by the local archbishop. The facility was called "Gift of Peace" and did not see itself as a dying house for AIDS sufferers - which it was in fact - but as a religious house that exclusively took care of terminally ill homeless people. In quick succession, further "Gifts of Peace" were set up in San Francisco (June 1988), Denver / Colorado (December 1989) and Addis Ababa / Ethiopia (March 1989). The monastic ambience did not always correspond to the expectations of the dying. For Mother Teresa's hagiographers, the first fifteen to twenty years of the Order are of extraordinary importance as an idealized time of improvisation, enthusiasm and self-sacrifice. The work in India, namely in Calcutta, is the focus of interest. As a rule nothing can be read of Mother Teresa's negotiations about the establishment of foreign branches, of the history of these communities or of their everyday life and the problems on site, even of any successes in proselytizing. The many example reports from these years, which are carefully repeated by every new vitae writer, hide the fact that these are not authentic self-statements because they use too many hagiographic topoi and cannot be verified. They characterize the “spirit of Mother Teresa on site” in Calcutta and should stand pars pro toto. Even such important dates as the founding of the first children's home or the first house where they died do not match, although biographers usually claim to have been authorized by Mother Teresa or to have moved around and worked with her for years. The fact that, due to the special weighting of the early years that have become legendary, the next four decades in the life of a woman who was constantly in the media, spoke on behalf of the Catholic Church and with the most important dignitaries in contemporary history, just briefly touch. The contacts and political considerations behind the countless awards and honorary doctorates on the basis of which 50 3. From Calcutta to Oslo, Mother Teresa's travel routes can be partially reconstructed, cannot be read anywhere. To ask about it would be sacrilege even within the logic of these representations, because Mother Teresa is treated as a timeless icon of charity, who lives the very idea that she represents, and for this is honored by worldly and spiritual dignitaries and by people all over the world World is respected. A nun as a media star If Mother Teresa had not stood by the archbishop and the government from the beginning, which ensured her growing popularity, her newly founded order would have gone just as unnoticed as the numerous other, much older orders, their medical and social services the poorest of the poor did not depend on Divine Providence, although they had many times less money to spend. In India, three weekly Catholic newspapers - Herald, New Leader and Examiner - reported on the Order from the start, but their reach was of course limited. Mother Teresa's reputation grew in the "normal" Indian newspapers in proportion to the attention her work received from prominent figures. Her friendship with Desmond Doig, an editor of the Statesman, one of the leading Indian daily newspapers, gave her a long series of benevolent and conspicuously placed reports. In 1976, Doig even published a markedly emotional pictorial biography for her, translated into numerous languages, with photos by the photographer Raghu Rai showing Mother Teresa and her sisters at work for the poorest of the poor. She has also been reported in the West since 1951, for example in the magazine "The Catholic Missions", the press organ of the "Papal Work for the Propagation of the Faith", which at least made Mother Teresa's fame within church institutions and opened up foreign sources of money for her. In contradiction to this, all Vites contain stories according to which Mother Teresa often did not even have the bare essentials for caring for the poor and the one nun as media star 51 sisters, but then after a prayer the gift from heaven arrived - one Sending money or in kind from an undisclosed patron. Even when purchasing land, she could have relied on Providence, because in her poverty she often threw a coin or a medallion at an area that she needed for the Order, and a few days later the option to purchase and finance through one would be available "Lucky coincidence". Such hagiographic devices protect Mother Teresa's contact persons, her organizational network and her privacy, while making her work appear to be the work of God. Within the Church, the Indian Archbishop of Bangalore, Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy (cardinal since 1985), made a significant contribution to Mother Teresa's worldwide fame. After he was called to Rome in 1971 and was appointed secretary of the Congregation for Propaganda in 1973, the "Fides kor res pon denz", which forwards missionary news to the world press every week, took on Mother Teresa's. It was honored here in 1973 as an “international symbol” of Christian charity. For its growing international reputation, however, television and press reports about visits by well-known personalities, such as Pope Paul VI. or Edward Kennedys (1971), and on bestowing upon them prestigious awards and distinctions of incomparably greater importance. A complete list of such honors would fill many pages, so only the most important ones up to the 1979 Nobel Prize are mentioned below. One of the earliest awards that attracted great public attention in the West was the "Pope John XXIII Peace Prize", endowed with 25,000 US dollars. 1971 presented in front of running cameras. The price refers to the encyclical "Pacem in terris" (April 22, 1963), which set the course for the Eastern policy of future popes, because in it the development of contacts to socialist countries became the basis for a peaceful future Calcutta after Oslo is declared as living together of peoples. That same year, the Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Foundation awarded Mother Teresa her prize ($ 25,000) in Washington. The purpose of the foundation, to offer help for born and unborn mentally handicapped people and their families, corresponded with Mother Teresa's charity and her commitment against abortion. This was followed by the Jawaharlal Nehru Prize for International Understanding (1972), with which the Indian government thanked Mother Teresa's contribution to international development aid for India. In 1973, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and Queen Elizabeth II's husband, presented Mother Teresa with the newly established Templeton Foundation Prize for Religious Development (US $ 85,000) because their work neglected the world's attention to the homeless I steered children in Calcutta and set relief measures in motion. This year she was also awarded the “Santa Luisa de Marillac” prize in Los Angeles and the gold medal of the city of Milan; She received a worldwide free flight ticket from the Indian government. The following year she received the Honorary Dagger of the Republic of Yemen from the Prime Minister and the “Mater-et-Magistra Prize” of the “Third Order of St. Francis of Assisi” (USA). The name of the award was reminiscent of an encyclical of the same name (May 15, 1961) by Pope John XXIII, which advocated equalizing social justice between countries with different economic strengths. In 1975 Mother Teresa was immortalized as the goddess of agriculture on the Ceres Medal of the Food and Agriculture Conference of the United Nations in Rome, which honored her commitment to the fight against hunger in the Third World. This year, too, she received prestigious awards in the USA, such as the badge of honor from the station “Voice of America” for her work in India, the Albert Schweitzer Prize from the University of North Carolina (Wilmington), an honor with prize money on “ National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception »in Washington by Patrick Aloysius O'Boyle, former Archbishop of Washington DC, and an honorary doc- A nun as a media star 53 degrees in the law department at Jesuit St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, Canada. In addition, she spoke at a Spiritual Summit Conference in New York as a representative of Christianity in front of representatives of other world religions and in Mexico City as the representative of Paul VI. at a conference of the United Nations International Women's Year on the subject of «Women in Society and Family» from a Catholic perspective. Her next honorary doctorate was given by Indira Gandhi in her function as Chancellor of Vishva Bharati University. It was the Deshikottama ("Doctor-of-Literature-Sash", 1976), one of the highest honors for Mother Teresa's services to the needy part of humanity. In the same year, the College Iona New Rochelle (USA) awarded her an honorary doctorate. At the Eucharistic World Congress in Philadelphia (1976) under the motto "Jesus, the bread of life for a starving world", she was allowed to speak to more than a million television viewers and 200 theologians on the Hiroshima anniversary on the question of abortion. A year later, the Faculty of Theology at Cambridge University awarded her the next honorary doctorate. In addition, Mother Teresa was named "Knight of Humanity" in 1977 when she was awarded the Cavalieri dell’Umanità Prize by the Unione Cavaleria Cristiana Internazionale, shoulder to shoulder with astronaut Neil Armstrong. 1978 brought her another honorary doctorate, this time from Temple University in Philadelphia, and the Balzan Prize worth 500,000 Swiss francs, presented by the Italian President Sandro Pertini and awarded by the International Balzan Foundation. This institution awards a special prize for “Humanity, Peace and Fraternity among the Nations” at irregular intervals, which is usually twice as high as the annual prizes in the categories of humanities and natural sciences. The Nobel Foundation received it in 1961, Pope John XXIII in 1962, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1968, Mother Teresa in 1978, Abbé 54 3. From Calcutta to Oslo Pierre in 1996, the International Committee of Red Cross, 2000 Abdul Sattar Edhi (Pakistan). The basis of sympathy for Mother Teresa's extraordinary publicity, however, was not laid by an award committee, government or church dignitary, but a British journalist: Malcolm Muggeridge (1903–1990). He interviewed Mother Teresa for about half an hour in 1968 while she was in London for a BBC program about her work in Calcutta. Muggeridge, looking back: “The response was greater than any comparable program known to me, both in terms of mail and donations to Mother Teresa's work. I myself received many letters of checks and money transfers ranging from a few shillings to hundreds of pounds. They came from young and old, rich and poor, educated and uneducated, from people of all kinds and all backgrounds. Everyone said roughly the same thing - this woman addressed me like no other. [...] It may seem surprising at first glance that an unknown nun of Yugoslav origin, very nervous in front of the camera, as could clearly be seen, and with a somewhat hesitant voice, appeared to English television viewers on a Sunday evening like no professional Christian apologist , Bishop, archbishop, moderator or noisy progressive demonstrator in spiritual guise. But that is exactly what happened to the surprise of all those affected professionally, including myself. " The following year Muggeridge made an apologetically tinged but documented film about Mother Teresa and the beneficial work of the missionaries in their poor settlements in the middle of the slums of Calcutta. The camera captured scenes that were generally unthinkable in the industrialized west. A much-cited miracle occurred during the shooting: the camera filmed the dying in Nirmal Hriday, and the footage appeared in a previously unseen light that Muggeridge attributed to the presence of God. The cameraman had tried a new Kodak film, which of course was ignored in the legend writing. The film ran under the title Eine Nun als Medienstar 55 “Something beautiful for God”, which Muggeridge also chose for his Mother Teresa book, published in 1971 (quotation above, p. 25 f.), Which is available in twenty editions and in thirteen languages appeared, was sold over 300,000 times and was trend-setting for future legends - not only in view of the deliberate nebulosity of facts and data, but also with regard to the topoi and examples. To portray Muggeridge as the "discoverer" of Mother Teresa, as often happens, is surely an exaggeration, because even before 1968 she had enjoyed the highest protection and awards. However, it owed its popularity in the West with Christians and atheists, liberals and conservatives in large part to his public relations work and his sure instinct for a "good story". Muggeridge is regarded as G. K. Chesterton of the late 20th century and one of the influential Christian apologists, who is said to have a socialist attitude towards youth, which was followed by a phase of Christian reconsideration and in old age (1983) conversion to Catholicism. His conservative Orthodox creed and confessional writings, which arose in connection with his lifelong friendship with Mother Teresa and deepened precisely her topics, earned him the nickname «St. Mugg »a. In his eyes, secular liberalism was "the greatest of all destructive powers". He was one of the journalists supported by the “Congress for Cultural Freedom” (CCF) and therefore had excellent contacts, so that he not only prophesied Mother Teresa the Nobel Prize in 1971, but was also able to support her nomination - together with the former Canadian Prime Minister and Nobel Prize Winner Lester Pearson, Lady Jackson (Pontifical Commission for Justice and Peace) and members of the Order of St. John. The CCF was an influential organization: it was founded in 1949/50 for scholars, artists, free thinkers, writers and journalists, even anti-American intellectuals. Their goal was to protect the West from communist and socialist influences during the Cold War by promoting a “non-communist left” culture and an “America-friendly right-wing” culture. For the establishment, artistic or ideological innovations (such as postmodernism), whose real political relevance was unobjectionable, were financially supported, conservative intellectual currents anyway. The CCF was monitored and sponsored by the CIA, which of course very few members knew.In any case, Muggeridge answered the Nobel Prize Committee's questions about what concrete contribution Mother Teresa had made to world peace, pointing out that she “saw in every suffering soul her Savior and treated it accordingly, by working with her missionaries in a kind of love generator of the world was a counterforce to the mania for power, greed and selfish undertakings [...] from which individual and collective violence in all its forms arose ». (Spink, 198) That was not enough for the Nobel Peace Prize, and even in 1975 - in the "Year of the Woman" - Muggeridge, together with Senator Edward Kennedy, Maurice Strong, the director of "The United Nations Environment", and the chairman of the World Bank, Robert McNamara, don't succeed. The third attempt in 1979 was finally successful. On December 10th, Mother Teresa received the prize of 980,000 crowns and a further 360,000 crowns that had been collected by enthusiastic citizens and presented to her as the “Prize of the Norwegian People”. Mother Teresa was also able to donate the collection of the festive service, 48,000 crowns, and 3,000 crowns as the equivalent of the banquet that was canceled at her request. She gave her speech in a saree and sandals and was celebrated as a "star without a wig, without make-up, without artificial eyelashes, without mink and without diamonds, without theatrical gestures and tics", who was only obsessed with the thought of how the " Nobel Prize can be used in the best possible way for the poorest of the poor in the world ». (Spink, p. 203) When Mother Teresa repeated her speech a day later for the Norwegian people, those present spontaneously sang a hal le luja. A nun as a media star 57 The 1979 Nobel Peace Prize The award of the Nobel Peace Prize was the high point of her publicity for Mother Teresa and the highest recognition of her integrity and her achievements in combating human misery for the world public. It has been awarded since 1901 for special merits in peace work, and since 1960 also for merits to human rights. The award ceremony will take place on December 10th, International Human Rights Day. The winner is determined by an independent five-member committee whose members are appointed by the Norwegian Parliament. The arguments that led the committee to honor Mother Teresa are not known because the meetings are not minuted, the decisions are in principle not justified and public debates are not commented on. In contrast to many people and organizations that received the award, its awarding to Mother Teresa was not discussed in public controversy. This seems all the more remarkable since Mother Teresa was neither involved in a political peace process nor in the drafting of the UN Covenants on Human Rights (concluded in 1966), which came into force in 1976; Nor was it committed to the international recognition of the (successively adopted) related UN conventions. The awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize to Mother Teresa meant a breach of convention in a factual sense, and her award speech even more. She took the opportunity to address the world to first invite the audience to prayer and then to preach extensively against abortion and non-natural contraception, with close reference to the position of the Catholic Church. She also named the roots of her spirituality with her basic axiom of seeing the suffering Christ in every poor person and therefore not doing any social work in the common sense, although very few Christian listeners should have been aware of the dimension of this statement not to mention the non-Christian public. Her appeal - at the same time her patronage - was simple, addressed to every single person and not overwhelming: «And I think that we don't need bombs and cannons in our family, to destroy or bring peace - just approach one another, love one another, bring this peace, this joy, the power of being there to your home. And that will be enough to overcome all evils in the world. There is so much suffering, so much hatred, so much misery, and we start with our prayer, with our sacrifice at home. Love begins at home, and it's not about how much we do, but how much love we put into our actions. We do it for God Almighty - how much we do does not matter, because he is infinite, it is all about how much love we put in the action, how much we do for him through the person we serve. [...] And that's why we always want to meet each other with a smile, because the smile is the beginning of love, and when we start to love one another, it goes without saying that we want to do something for the other. So pray for our sisters and for me and our brothers. Mother Teresa's calm, balanced, honest face fascinated believers and unbelievers around the world. Without this personal charisma, their success would have been inconceivable. The 1979 Nobel Peace Prize 59 and for our employees around the world. Pray that we will remain faithful to God's gift of loving him and serving him in his arms [...] But I don't want you to give me of your abundance. I want you to give until it hurts. […] [Fourteen] professors came to our house and we talked about love, about compassion. And then someone asked me: 'Please, mother, tell us something we can remember'. And I said to them: 'Smile at each other, take time for each other in the family. Smile at each other ›.» The myth of Mother Teresa as an “icon of charity” was completed at the latest when the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded. In order to understand their high public reputation, of course, it is not enough to refer to the glamor of this award. Mother Teresa explained to the world why she had to be loved by her: because she promised to bring peace during the Cold War, a peace without weapons and without deterrence, a peace of love, brought about by a smile. Anyone on earth could take part in this peace process. With this, not with her internationally controversial statements on birth control and the apostolic obligation of mothers to spread Christianity, she touched the nerve of her time worldwide. That is also the reason why Mother Teresa was not firmly anchored in the public consciousness as a Catholic missionary who grants satisfaction to the suffering Christ day and night and atonement for the world, but as a tolerant, philanthropically minded nun with the greatest social and developmental merits. The public at the time was hardly aware that Mother Teresa was primarily a missionary and founder of the order and only in a purely Catholic sense an internationally effective symbol of peace, because the press did not address it emphatically enough. This should still be the case despite her "re-acquisition" by the church in the course of her beatification process. Without wanting to trace the well-known history of the Cold War, it seems useful to recall a few facts that surround the date December 10, 1979 and make the international euphoria about the new Nobel Peace Prize laureate understandable : The foundations of the East-West conflict were created with the emergence of the Soviet Union (1917) and the break of the anti-Hitler coalition in connection with the Potsdam Agreement (1945). Behind the conflict between the USA and the Soviet Union were irreconcilable political systemic contradictions and values, which (from a Western perspective) emerge as a confrontation between “democracy” and “dictatorship”, market economy and planned economy, “capitalism” and “communism / socialism” (and many others) ) represented and led to the formation of blocks. In 1949, NATO was founded as a western military alliance, and in 1955 the Warsaw Pact was founded as its eastern counterpart. The now beginning nuclear arms race between the two superpowers up to - potential - overkill was intended to serve to secure long-term peace by deterring the first nuclear strike and "mutual assured destruction" and lasted until the 1990s. The East-West confrontation took place in “proxy wars” in which at least one of the two superpowers did not make a direct military presence in order to support the communist or capitalist interests of a state or a civil war party (e.g. Korean War 1950–1953 ; Vietnam War 1965–1975; Afghan War 1979; Angola Civil War 1975–2002; Nicaraguan War 1979/80). During the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, the threat of nuclear war was greatest. As a neutralizing reaction to the impending danger of a third world war, the “Non-Aligned Movement” was established in 1961, which mainly developing countries joined. It did not pursue a common policy and was initiated by the Indian Prime Minister Nehru, the Yugoslav President Tito and the Egyptian Head of State Nasser. Their general demands included the disarmament of the superpowers, a ban on nuclear weapons, but also equal rights and equal treatment towards other nations and the associated decolonization of the member states. Four days before Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the foreign ministers of the Warsaw Pact countries endorsed the SALT II disarmament agreement. On December 12, 1979, the so-called NATO double resolution was agreed, which provided for Western European medium-range missiles to be launched using Pershing II and Cruise missiles - to replace missiles while offering arms control negotiations to the Soviet Union. In the last days of December, Soviet troops began to march into Afghanistan, to which then US President Ronald Reagan reacted with increased arms spending. These were finally bundled in 1983 in the SDI project (Star Wars program), which was not abandoned until 1993, after the end of the Eastern Bloc in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Mutual disarmament has been made possible since 1987 (INF Treaty) by the increasingly obvious exhaustion of the Soviet Union and by the policies of Mikhail Gorbachev, who in 1985 recognized the need for internal reform measures and took the initiatives on perestroika and glasnost. In the middle of the Cold War and a year after a Pole took the chair of Petri, to present the Nobel Peace Prize to an Albanian nun from one of the non-aligned states, whose peace concept speaks of nothing more than human warmth, about the enmity between East and West and the divide Bridging between the different races and religions was an enthusiastic message and symbol. The gesture corresponded exactly to the taste of the internationally active peace movements and their innumerable sympathizers, who were not united by a political or ideological concept, but rather a humanitarian vision. Mother Teresa was now in the tradition of the respected Nobel Peace Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer (1952), who had proclaimed a "disposition of peace" and urged the rulers to become executors of the peoples' love for peace for humanity »to prevent. Appeals of this kind, followed by well-known scientists, were made not only by pacifists all over the world (think of Easter marches, 6000-mile march from San Francisco to Moscow in 1966, sit-ins, opposition to the Vietnam War), but also by churches (e.g. the Catholic “Pax-Christi” peace organization, the Quakers, the cross-bloc “Christian Peace Conference”, the “Heidelberg Theses” of the Protestant churches). Mother Teresa's "pacification smile" was understood as a symbol in the context of contemporary history and was bound to meet with global sympathy. The many subsequent awards and honors, which she received from heads of state of the East and West, from humanitarian and church organizations, and the unbroken public acceptance, which is expressed, for example, in the large volume of donations, testify to the ideological compatibility of her Call to humanity. Mother Teresa was now a political figure sui generis, since she did not allow herself to be drawn into any political camp - nor was she allowed to - and a generally accepted ethical authority that rose above the block affiliation or the worldview of her supporters and her patients. In this way, however, Mother Teresa's actual achievements and the nature of her spirituality escaped public perception. 4. A worldwide “organism of love” The Missionary Brothers of Charity In view of her success story, Mother Teresa's actual missionary achievements, above all the establishment of several religious branches of the Missionaries of Charity, took a back seat in the public eye. The idea of ​​providing the sisters with a fraternal order to work with them was immediately borne out by Périers' Brothers of Charity 63