How similar are Hindustani and Bengali languages


Bengali is one of the Indian languages, including more than 150 individual languages ​​spoken on the Indian subcontinent. The great majority of the Indian languages ​​belong as the Indo-Aryan language to the subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, or to the non-Indo-European Dravidian language family. A much smaller group of Indian languages ​​belongs to the Austro-Asian and Sino-Tibetan language families. There is no common language for all Indians on the Indian subcontinent. Hindi and English are the two official languages ​​of India, and both languages ​​are common in the various language regions of India. There are also 15 official languages ​​recognized by the Indian Constitution that are used in schools and in official transactions: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Urdu, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada (or Canarian) and Malayalam. The state language of Pakistan is Urdu; the state language of Bangladesh is Bengali. Around the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC The Indo-Iranians moved eastward, away from the other Indo-European peoples, and settled in Iran. Probably around 1000 BC The two branches of language, Indian (also called Indo-Aryan) and Iranian, had split off. Iranian was spoken in an area roughly equivalent to modern day Iran and Afghanistan, and Indian developed in northwest India (see Indo-Iranian languages). The speakers of Indian must have met the speakers of Dravidian in northern India; the indigenous people with Dravidian languages ​​were pushed back or forced to move south to the peninsula where they are today. The history of the Indian language family is usually divided into three main periods: (1) Ancient Indian; this includes Wedisch and Classical Sanskrit; (2) Middle Indian (from around the 3rd century BC), which includes the Sanskrit dialects known under the collective name “Prakrit” (including Pali); and (3) New or Modern Indian (from about the 10th century AD); this includes the modern languages ​​spoken in the northern and central part of the Indian subcontinent. The Swedish Sanskrit (around 1500 BC to approx. 200 BC) is the oldest form of Sanskrit and the language in which the Weda, the holy scriptures of Hinduism, is written. A later expression of the language, the classical Sanskrit (from approx. 500 BC), was used in religious, literary and theoretical writings. So are the two great Indian epics from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. Chr., The Mahabharata and the Ramayana written in classical Sanskrit. As the language of priests and scholars, it is still widely used today. The Central Indian Prakrit existed in many regional varieties that eventually developed their own literatures. Pali, the language of the Buddhist canonical scriptures, is the oldest literary language of Prakrit. It is still used as the liturgical language in Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Thailand. The individual dialects of Prakrit were spoken in the vernacular until around the 12th century AD, but as early as around the 10th century modern Indian dialects began to develop. In total there are more than 400 million speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indian) languages ​​today. It is difficult to determine the exact number of these languages. About 35 of these are significant, especially Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Gujarati, Punjabi, Marathi, Bihâri, Oriya and Rajasthani. Each of these individual languages ​​has more than ten million speakers. Although the languages ​​Hindi and Urdu have different names, they are actually only slightly different dialects of a language. The main differences lie in the origin of their vocabulary, in the scriptures as well as in the religious traditions. The Hindi vocabulary was essentially taken from Sanskrit, while Urdu has many words of Persian and Arabic origin. Hindi is written in the Devanagari script, Urdu in a Persian-Arabic script. By far the largest group of Hindi speakers are Hindus; Urdu, on the other hand, is predominantly spoken by Muslims - in India as well as all over Pakistan. There are two main varieties of Hindi that are used by a total of approximately 180 million speakers. West Hindi, which developed in the Delhi area, includes the literary languages ​​Hindi and Urdu. East Hindi is spoken mainly in central Uttar Pradesh and eastern Madhya Pradesh; his most important writings are in the Awadhi dialect. (Hindustani is an older term that has been used less and less since the division of 1947. Hindustani is the hybrid form of western Hindi-Urdu that developed in the camps and on the marketplaces around Delhi spread throughout India in the 18th century and served as the lingua franca among the various language groups.) Bengali, which is spoken in West Bengal and by almost the entire population of Bangladesh, has the sixth highest number of speakers worldwide (approx. 120 million). Just like Hindi, Bengali is derived from Sanskrit. It is the language of the poet Rabindranath Tagore, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. It has the most extensive literary production of any modern Indian language. Punjabi (also Panjabi) is spoken in Punjab, a region that extends over parts of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan, and was the language of the founders of the Sikh religion. The sacred teachings of this religion are documented in Punjabi in the Gurmukhi script, which was developed by a Sikh guru. In India, Punjabi has a lot in common with Hindi; in the west, in Pakistan, the dialects of Punjabi differ greatly from one another. The term Bihâri encompasses three related languages ​​- Bhojpuri, Maithili and Magahi - which are mainly spoken in Northeast India in Bihâr. Despite the approximately 40 million speakers, Bihari is not a constitutionally recognized state language in India. Even in Bihar, Hindi is used in education and official affairs. Other important Indian languages ​​include Sinhala, the state language of Sri Lanka, and Romani, the language of the Gypsies, which developed in India and is spread around the world. The sound inventory and grammar of Romani is clearly influenced by Sanskrit, from which this language developed. Most of the scripts in the Indian languages ​​ultimately go back to the Brahmi script, which is derived from the North Semitic. Devanagari, which developed from the Brahmi script, is used for Nepali, Marathi and Kashmiri (from Hindus), as well as for Hindi, Sanskrit and the Prakrit dialects. Gujarati, Bengali, Assamese and Oriya each have their own writing systems that go back to Devanagari. A Persian-Arabic script is used for Urdu, Sindhi (which is also written in Devanagari) and Punjabi. There are about 25 Dravidian languages ​​with a total of over 150 million speakers, mostly from the south and east of India. The four main Dravidian languages ​​are recognized as official state languages ​​- Tamil in Tamil Nadu, Telugu in Andhra Pradesh, Kannada (Canarian) in Mysore and Malayalam in Kerala. They have a long literary tradition and their own writing systems. Telugu has the largest number of speakers among the Dravidian languages. Tamil has the most extensive literature, which, not quite as old as previously thought, probably goes back to the 1st through 5th centuries AD. Tamil has the largest geographic extent and is also spoken in northwestern Sri Lanka. The other Dravidian languages ​​are spoken by a smaller number of speakers and the majority are not written languages. The Dravidian languages ​​have borrowed many words from the Indian languages, especially Sanskrit. Conversely, the Indian languages ​​have adopted sounds and grammatical structures from Dravidian. The Munda languages, with around twelve individual languages, are spoken by around five or six million people in scattered areas in northeast and central India. The main Munda language is Santali, which has the largest number of speakers and is the only Munda language that has a script. As we know today, both the Munda languages ​​and the Dravidian languages ​​existed in India before the Indo-European invasion. Linguists assume that the Munda languages ​​are related to the Mon Khmer languages ​​of southeast Asia and include these language branches in the Austro-Asian language family. A Mon Khmer language, Khasi, is spoken in India in the Assam province. A small number of Sino-Tibetan languages ​​are also spoken along India's borders, from Tibet to Myanmar.