How skillful was Hasdrubal compared to Hannibal

Political and cultural development of Rome


  • Establishment of the colonies of Cremona and Placentia (Polyb.3,40; Liv.Epit.20; Liv.21.25; Vell.Pat.1,14), which angered the Gauls against the Romans and allowed them to cooperate with Hannibal.
  • 2. Punic War: The Hannibalian War is in a narrower sense the part of the 2nd Punic War in which Hannibal led the Carthaginian troops.
  • Hannibal has 90,000 foot soldiers available. He left 10,000 in Spain under Hanno as a protection force, and released another 10,000 back home. With the rest of the foot soldiers and 12,000 cavalry men, he set out from Carthago Nova in the spring and reached Italy after five months. He pulled the Rhodanus a little upstream and crossed it under the influence of the Isara, which he pulled up again. According to Polybios, he crossed the Alps via the Little St. Bernhard (other assumptions: Mont Genèvre, Mont Cenis). Livy's statements are too vague to be able to reconstruct the exact route from them. At the beginning of winter he descended to the Salasser (Aosta Valley) area, who were allied with the Insubres. His army was now 38,000 foot soldiers, 8,000 horsemen, 37 elephants, as well as 12,000 Libyans, 8,000 Spanish foot soldiers and 6,000 horsemen (Polyb. 3,33-56; Liv. 20,21-38). There were several reasons for the overland route:
    • Avoidance of the less calculable risks of seafaring,
    • Try to win over the Gauls on the other side as well,
    • Surprise effect (which overturned all Roman plans)
    • Intention to arrive in Italy in the territory of the Allied Insubers.
  • The two Roman consuls planned to attack the Carthaginians in Africa and Spain. Publius Cornelius Scipio was already on the march to Spain when he heard of Hannibal's arrival in Massilia, while Tiberius Sempronius Longus was still making preparations in Sicily for the crossing to Africa. Scipio could no longer place Hannibal on the Rhodanus, there was only an insignificant cavalry battle, which the Romans won (Liv.21.29; Polyb.3.45). Scipio then returned to Italy. For him, his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus went with an army to Spain, where he acted (similar to Hannibal in northern Italy) as the liberator of the Spaniards from Carthaginian rule. He struck Cissa a Carthaginian army under Hanno and wins all of Spain north of the Ebro (Liv.21,60f .; Polyb.3,76). Tiberius Sempronius Longus also broke off his preparations in Sicily and turned to the theater of war in northern Italy. Hannibal beats both consuls separately.
    • First he beats Publius Cornelius Scipio in an equestrian battle on Ticinus (Polyb.3,49; Polyb.3,56,5-65; Liv.21,39-46).

      Liv. 21,45,1-3: [1] his adhortationibus cum utrimque ad certamen accensi militum animi essent, Romani ponte Ticinum iungunt tutandique pontis causa castellum insuper imponunt: [2] Poenus hostibus opere occupatis Maharbalem cum ala Numidarum, equitibus quingentis, ad depopulandos Romani sociorum popros [3] Gallis parci quam maxime iubet principumque animos ad defectionem sollicitari. ponte perfecto traductus Romanus exercitus in agrum Insubrium quinque milia passuum ab Victumulis consedit.

      (1) Since the courage of the soldiers on both sides to fight was kindled by these admonitions, the Romans built a bridge over the Ticino and built a bridgehead to protect the bridge. (2) While the enemies were busy with the fortification, the Punic sends the Maharbal with a Numidians division with 5,000 horsemen to devastate the fields of the allies of the Roman people. (3) He orders to spare the Gauls especially and to provoke the (minds of) noble people to apostasy. After the bridge was completed, the Roman army was led into the land of the Insubrians and encamped 5000 paces from Victumulae (not far from Vercelli). (Transfer to Gerlach)
    • then he beats Tiberius Sempronius Longus at the Trebia (Polyb.3.66-74; Liv.21.47-56).
    • Both consuls take refuge in Placentia and Cremona, where they take winter quarters.
  • With this year the second surviving part of the historical work of Titus Livius (books 21-45) begins again.
  • Hannibal crosses the Apennines and defeats the consul Gaius Flaminius on Trasumenian lake (June 23, 217). The consul falls. (Polyb.3,75-85; Liv.21,63-22,7). Both consuls had the task of blocking the two possible approaches to central Italy (through Etruria and across the Apennines). At the same time as he became consulate, Flaminius had taken over his four legions in Ariminum from the previous consul Sempronius and from the praetor Gaius Atilius and guarded the access across the Apennines. As a result, Hannibal was forced to go on his well-known march through the marshes of the Arnus (Polyb.3,79; Liv.22,2). When he arrived in Etruria, he irritated Flaminius by looting and by feigning march on Rome. He succeeds in luring Flaminius into the trap on Lake Trasumen.
    Liv. 22,4,1-3: [1] Hannibal, quod agri est inter Cortonam urbem Trasumennumque lacum, omni clade belli pervastat, quo magis iram hosti ad vindicandas sociorum iniurias acuat; [2] et iam pervenerant ad loca nata insidiis, ubi maxime montes Cortonenses in Trasumennum sidunt. via tantum interest perangusta, velut ad id ipsum de industria relicto spatio; deinde paulo latior patescit campus; [3] inde colles adsurgunt. ibi castra in aperto locat, ubi ipse cum Afris modo Hispanisque consideret; Baliares ceteramque levem armaturam post montes circumducit; equites ad ipsas fauces saltus tumulis apte tegentibus locat, ut, ubi intrassent Romani, obiecto equitatu clausa omnia lacu ac montibus essent.(1) Hannibal devastated all the land between the city of Cortona and the Lake Trasumen with all the horrors of war, in order to provoke the wrath of the enemy all the more, to take revenge for the injustice inflicted on his allies. (2) And already they had come to areas made for an ambush, where the Lake Trasumen is closest to the mountains of Cortona. It's just a very narrow path in between, as if space had been purposely left for it. Then the field becomes a little more open and wider. (3) Hills rise from there. Here he sets up camp in an open place where he only wanted to camp himself with the Africans and Spaniards. He leads the Balearic slingers and the rest of the lightly armed crew around behind the mountain; He sets up the cavalry in the immediate vicinity of the gorges of the forest mountains, where they are slightly covered by hills, so that the cavalry, when the Romans had penetrated, blocked their way and they were thus enclosed all around by the lake and the mountains. (Transfer to Gerlach)
  • Only a few survive the disaster and make their way to Rome without being captured. In addition, the 4,000 horsemen who Gnaeus Servilius sends to help fall victim to Hannibal (Polyb. 3,86; Liv. 22,8). In accordance with his role as liberator, Hannibal dismisses the imprisoned allies of the Romans with friendly words (Polyb.3,85,4)
    Polyb.3,85,1-4: [1] Ἀννίβας δέ, πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐπαναχθέντων τῶν ὑποσπόνδων, ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων αἰχμαλώτων, συναγαγὼν πάντας, [2] ὄντας πλείους τῶν μυρίων καὶ πεντακισχιλίων, πρῶτον μὲν διεσάφησεν, ὅτι Μαάρβας οὐκ εἴη κύριος ἄνευ τῆς αὑτοῦ γνώμης διδοὺς τὴν ἀσφάλειαν τοῖς ὑποσπόνδοις , μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα κατηγορίαν ἐποιήσατο Ῥωμαίων. [3] λήξας δὲ τούτων, ὅσοι μὲν ἦσαν Ῥωμαῖοι τῶν ἑαλωκότων, διέδωκεν εἰς φυλακὴν ἐπὶ τὰ τάγματα, τοὺς δὲ συμμάχους ἀπέλυσε χωρὶς λύτρων ἅπαντας εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν, [4] ἐπιφθεγξάμενος τὸν αὐτὸν, ὃν καὶ πρόσθεν, λόγον, ὅτι πάρεστι πολεμήσων οὐκ Ἰταλιώταις , ἀλλὰ Ῥωμαίοις ὑπὲρ τῆς Ἰταλιωτῶν ἐλευθερίας. (1) But Hannibal, to whom those who had capitulated and also the other prisoners of war were brought, had everyone, (2) more than fifteen thousand in number, called together and initially stated that Maharbal had no authority without his consent to give the former the promise of sparing, then he began with an indictment against the Romans. (3) When he was finished with this, he divided all the Romans into custody among the troops, but released all of the allies home without a ransom, (4) with the same words as the first time: he had come, not to with the Italians, but to make war with the Romans for the freedom of the Italians. (By H. Drexler)
  • In the mouth of the Ebro (Iberus) the Romans win a naval victory over Hasdrubal, which his brother Hannibal had left behind with an important army (12,600 foot soldiers, 2,500 horsemen, 29 elephants) to protect Spain. (Polyb.3,95f .; Liv.22,19f.)

    Liv. 22,19,11-20,3: [19,11] et iam Romanus non appropinquabat modo sed direxerat etiam in pugnam naves. itaque non ab hoste et proelio magis Poeni quam suomet ipsi tumultu turbati, temptata verius pugna quam inita in fugam averterunt classem; [12] et, cum adversi amnis os lato agmini et tam multis simul venientibus haud sane intrabile esset, in litus passim naves egerunt, atque alii vadis, alii sicco litore excepti, partim armati, partim inermes ad instructam per litus aciem suorum perfugere; duae tamen primo concursu captae erant Punicae naves, quattuor suppressae. [20,1] Romani, quamquam terra hostium erat armatamque aciem toto praetentam in litore cernebant, [2] haud cunctanter insecuti trepidam hostium classem naves omnes, quae non aut perfregerant proras litori inlisas aut carinas fixerant vadis, alt religumas extraxibus; ad quinque et viginti naves e quadraginta cepere. [3] neque id pulcherrimum eius victoriae fuit, sed quod una levi pugna toto eius orae mari potiti erant.

    (19:11) And already the Roman not only approached, but also had the ships in order of battle. Hence, no longer confused by the enemy and the battle than by their own noise, the Punians, having tried the battle sooner than actually started, turned to flee with the fleet. (12) And since they could not enter the mouth of the river upstream with an extensive train, and because so many came at the same time, they drove the ships onto the beach and fled, partly through shallows, partly on the dry beach one armed, the other without weapons to the order of battle of their people drawn up on the beach. But at the first meeting two ships of the Punians were taken and four sunk. (20,1) Although the land was now in the possession of the enemy and the Romans saw the hostile order of battle set up along the whole coast, (2) they nevertheless pursued the frightened enemy fleet without any hesitation and took all ships that could not be attacked had broken the ship's beaks on the shore or rammed their keels into shallows, on the tow and carried them with them into the high seas and conquered twenty-five of forty ships. (3) And that was not the best thing about this victory, but that by a single insignificant battle they seized the sea on this whole coast. (Transfer to Gerlach)
  • Publius Cornelius Scipio arrives in Spain (Liv. 22:22; Polyb. 3,97,2-4).
  • In an emergency, the tried and tested means of appointing a dictator are used in Rome, namely Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator, the "procrastinator" (Polyb.3,86-94; Polyb.3,100-105; Liv.22,8-18) .
    Liv. 22,8,5-7: [5] itaque ad remedium iam diu neque desideratum nec adhibitum, dictatorem dicendum, civitas confugit; et quia et consul aberat, a quo uno dici posse videbatur, nec per occupatam armis Punicis Italiam facile erat aut nuntium aut litteras mitti nec dictatorem populus creare poterat, [6] quod nunquam ante eam diem factum erat, Fabium maximum dictatorem populus creavit Q. et magistrum equitum M. Minucium Rufum; [7] iisque negotium from senatu datum, ut muros turresque urbis firmarent et praesidia disponerent, quibus locis videretur, pontesque rescinderent fluminum: pro urbe dimicandum esse ac penatibus, quando Italiam tueri nequissent.(5) Hence the citizenry resorted to a tool that had not been sought or used for a long time: the appointment of a dictator. And because in the absence of the consul, by whom he seemed to be able to be appointed alone, it was not easy to send letters or messengers through Punic-occupied Italy and the people could not choose the dictator, (6) what had never happened before that time, the people elected Quintus Fabius Maximus as (pro) dictator and as commander of the cavalry Marcus Minucius Rufus; (7) and these were given the order by the Senate to fortify the walls and towers of the city, to put garrisons in and to destroy the bridges over the rivers wherever it seemed good to them. You have to fight for the city and the household gods because you couldn't maintain Italy. (Transfer to Gerlach)
  • Hannibal had meanwhile moved further south and devastated the area of ​​Praetutium and Hadria, the land of the Martians, Marrucins and Peligners and the Apulian area around Arpi and Luceria. (Liv.22,9; see Polyb.3,88). There the dictator met him and followed him without engaging in a fight, mostly on the mountain ranges.
    Liv. 22,12,3-12: [3] , quo primum die haud procul Arpis in conspectu hostium posuit castra, nulla mora facta, quin Poenus educeret in aciem copiamque pugnandi faceret. [4] sed ubi quieta omnia apud hostes nec castra ullo tumultu mota videt, increpans quidem victos tandem illos Martios animos Romanis, debellatumque et concessum propalam de virtute ac gloria esse, in castra rediit; [5] ceterum tacita cura animum incessit, quod cum duce haudquaquam Flamini Sempronique simili futura sibi res esset ac tum demum edocti malis Romani parem Hannibali ducem quaesissent. [6] et prudentiam quidem non vim dictatoris extemplo timuit; constantiam hauddum expertus, agitare ac temptare animum movendo crebro castra populandoque in oculis eius agros sociorum coepit, [7] et modo citato agmine ex conspectu abibat, modo repente in aliquo flexu viae, si excipere degressum in aequum posset, occultus subsistebat. [8] Fabius per loca alta agmen ducebat, modico ab hoste intervallo ut neque omitteret eum neque congrederetur. castris, nisi quantum usus necessarii cogerent, tenebatur miles; pabulum et ligna nec pauci petebant nec passim; [9] equitum levisque armaturae statio, composita instructaque in subitos tumultus, et suo militi tuta omnia et infesta effusis hostium populatoribus praebebat; [10] neque universo periculo summa rerum committebatur et parva momenta levium certaminum ex tuto coeptorum, finitimo receptu, adsuefaciebant territum pristinis cladibus militem minus iam tandem aut virtutis aut fortunae paenitere suae. [11] sed non Hannibalem magis infestum tam sanis consiliis habebat quam magistrum equitum, qui nihil aliud quam quod impar erat imperio morae ad rem publicam praecipitandam habebat.ferox rapidusque consiliis ac lingua immodicus, [12] primo inter paucos, your propalam in volgus, pro cunctatore segnem, pro cauto timidum, adfingens vicina virtutibus vitia, compellabat, premendoque superiorem, quae pessima ars nimis prosperis multorum successibus crevbitum successibus crevbit.(3) On the first day when the dictator pitched his camp not far from Arpi in the face of the enemy, the Punic did not hesitate for a moment to go out and offer him a battle. (4) But as soon as he sees that everything is quiet with the enemy and that there is no noise or movement in the camp, he certainly mocked himself that at last Roman heroism had been defeated, the war had been abandoned and the fame of the Conceded bravery, and returned to camp. (5) But the thought that he was dealing with a general who was by no means similar to Flaminius and Sempronius, and that the Romans, instructed by the misfortune, had finally looked for a general similar to Hannibal, worried him. (6) The dictator's cleverness immediately worried him, but not his strength. For since he had not yet tested his firmness, he tried to irritate him and try to do so by frequently changing his position and devastating the lands of his allies before his eyes and sometimes disappearing from his face in forced marches, sometimes suddenly at a bend stopped in a hiding place along the way to see if the enemy might descend into the plain and he could get over them. Fabius moved over the heights at a moderate distance from the enemy, so that he neither lost sight of him nor engaged in a battle. The war people were held back in the camp, except where the urgent need dictated the opposite. They brought wood and fodder neither in small numbers nor scattered; Divisions of cavalry and light infantry, well-ordered and prepared for sudden raids, granted their own war people full security and threatened the scattered looters of the enemy. The well-being of the whole thing was not jeopardized by a general danger, and the small successes of insignificant skirmishes, which were undertaken from a safe position and where the retreat was near, the war people, frightened by the earlier defeats, got more used to their bravery and to trust one's luck. (11) But with these so sensible measures he had no worse opponent in Hannibal than in the commander of the cavalry, whom nothing other than his submission to the supreme command prevented from plunging the community into disaster. Impetuously and hastily in his decisions and excessively in his speech, he began, first among a few, then very publicly above all the people, to ascribe to the dictator the mistakes bordering on the virtues and instead of hesitating to call him sluggish, instead of cautiously fearful, and by belittling his own Supervisors to get up: a bad habit that has grown very much through many happy successes. (Transfer to Gerlach)
  • Hannibal's train now leads into the area of ​​the Samnites and Falerner. (Liv. 22:13; Polyb. 3,90). Fabius blocked his way back, which Hannibal made free with a famous trick (burning sticks on cattle horns) over the iugum Calliculae (Liv. 22,16-18; Polyb. 3,93f.) In order to get back to Apulia.
  • The magister equitumMarcus Minucius finds more and more approval among the Romans for his dissatisfaction with the delaying tactics of Fabius, so that they resorted to the unusual means of equating him with Fabius (Liv. 22,24-26; Polyb. 3,103). But he lost this gain in recognition again when he allowed himself to be lured into a trap by Hannibal and had to be rescued by Fabius (Liv. 22: 27-30; Polyb. 3,104f.)
  • The consul Gaius Terentius Varro was of simple origin and tended (like Marcus Minucius, the magister equitum of the previous year) to be rather imprudent.
    Liv. 22,25,18: [18] C. Terentius Varro […], qui priore anno praetor fuerat, loco non humili solum sed etiam sordido ortus. [19] patrem lanium fuisse ferunt, ipsum institorem mercis, filioque hoc ipso in servilia eius artis ministeria usum.(18) Gaius Terentius Varro, who had been praetor last year, a man not only of low, but also of common origin. His father is said to have been a butcher himself and to have offered his goods for sale and also to have used his son for the servile activities of this trade. (Transfer to Gerlach)
  • The particular danger also led to extraordinary preparations:
    Polyb. 3,107,9-15: [9] προέθεντο δὲ στρατοπέδοις ὀκτὼ διακινδυνεύειν, ὃ πρότερον οὐδέποτ 'ἐγεγόνει παρὰ Ῥωμαίοις, ἑκάστου τῶν στρατοπέδων ἔχοντος ἄνδρας εἰς πεντακισχιλίους χωρὶς τῶν συμμάχων. [10] Ῥωμαῖοι γάρ, καθά που καὶ πρότερον εἰρήκαμεν, ἀεί ποτε τέτταρα στρατόπεδα προχειρίζονται. τὸ δὲ στρατόπεδον πεζοὺς μὲν λαμβάνει περὶ τετρακισχιλίους, ἱππεῖς δὲ διακοσίους. [11] ἐπὰν δέ τις ὁλοσχερεστέρα προφαίνηται χρεία, τοὺς μὲν πεζοὺς ἐν ἑκάστῳ στρατοπέλδα στρατοπέλδπῳ ποιοῦσι περδς ποιοῦς πετς πετς πετς πετς πεοτς, πελ 'ποιοῦς πετς πετς πετς πετς πετς πετς πετς πετς πετς πετς πετς. [12] τῶν δὲ συμμάχων τὸ μὲν τῶν πεζῶν πλῆθος πάρισον ποιοῦσι τοῖς Ῥωμαικοῖς στρατοπέδροίς, τὸω ς πτῶπονανανστοπέἐποπος, τὸ δὲ πτῶπονανανσς. [13] τούτων δὲ τοὺς ἡμίσεις τῶν συμμάχων καὶ τὰ δύο στρατόπεδα δόντες ἑκατέρῳ τῶν ὑπλλτων ἐξαἐο. [14] καὶ τοὺς μὲν πλείστους ἀγῶνας δι 'ἑνὸς ὑπάτου καὶ δύο στρατοπέδων καὶ τοῦ προειρημένου πλήθους τῶν συμμάχων κρίνουσι, σπανίως δὲ πᾶσι πρὸς ἕνα καιρὸν καὶ πρὸς ἕνα χρῶνται κίνδυνον. [15] τότε γε μὴν οὕτως ἐκπλαγεῖς ἦσαν καὶ κατάφοβοι τὸ μέλλον ὡς οὐ μόνον τέτταρσιν, ἀλλρῄδεοδοηο ῦπτκρατναδμοησο ῦῬτκρατνοηοηο στκαραναδμοηο πτκρατὁνοηδοηο ῖστκαραναμοηο πωιρατανοηδοηο ῦκτκρατανοηοηο ῖτκρατανοηοητο.(9) But they decided this time to fight with eight legions, which had never happened before with the Romans, with a strength of almost five thousand men per legion without their allies. (10) For, as we noted earlier, the Romans regularly field four legions, each legion about four thousand men on foot and two hundred horsemen. (11) If, however, a decisive battle is about to come, they increase the number of the infantry in each legion to about five thousand, and the horsemen to three hundred. (12) As for the allies, they make the number of the infantry more or less equal to the Roman legions, and that of the cavalry as a rule three times as large. (13) Each consul receives half of this alliance contingent when he goes into the field to his two Roman legions. (14) The majority of the battles they fight through with a consul, two legions and the aforementioned number of allies, and only rarely do they all begin in one instant and in one theater of war. (15) At that time, however, they were so afraid and concerned about the future that they had made up their minds to fight not just four but eight Roman legions at once. (By H. Drexler)
  • The consuls leave Rome (Liv. 22: 38-40) and meet Hannibal at Gerunium, where he had been in winter camp. Hannibal withdraws from Gerunium and after a few minor skirmishes, he fights Cannae his camp. The Roman army follows him there (Liv. 22,40-44; Polyb. 3,107). On August 2nd, 216 the battle broke out on the left bank of the Aufidus. The army of both consuls is enclosed and completely wiped out (Liv. 22,45-50; Polyb. 3,108-117). With 80,000 foot soldiers, the Romans had twice the strength of the Carthaginians, but the decisive factor for the worst defeat of Rome in its entire history was the superior 10,000 Carthaginian horsemen (Romans 6,000) and the better strategy. The consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus is seriously wounded after turning down his officer Lentulus' offer to save him. Only 3000 (Polyb.3,117) or 14,000 Romans (Liv.22,54) were able to escape ruin by fleeing.
  • To make matters worse, the army of Praetor Lucius Postumius in northern Italy is completely wiped out by the Gauls (Liv. 23:24; Polyb. 3,118,6)
  • and that the troops in Sicily and Sardinia requested supplies of soldiers and material because of Carthaginian operations at sea (Liv.22.57; Liv.23.21).
  • The fact that Southern Italy, Capua and Samnium fall away from Rome is one of the consequences of Cannaes for the Italian alliance (Liv. 22:61; Liv. 23:30; Dion. Hal. 2:17)
    Polyb.3,118,1-9: [1] Βραβευθείσης δὲ τῆς μάχης τὸν προειρημένον τρόπον, ἀκόλουθον εἰλήφει τὰ ὅλα κρίσης λα κρίσιν τοῖω κρπσιν τοῖω ὑπντ 'έσνρωοω ὑπντ' ρνσνονορως κπντ 'έσνρωονορωτκτἀμνωορως. [2] Καρχηδόνιοι μὲν γὰρ διὰ τῆς πράξεως ταύτης παραχρῆμα τῆς μὲν λοιπῆς παραλίας σχεδὸν πάσης ἦσαν ἐγκρατεῖς · [3] Ταραντῖνοί τε γὰρ εὐθέως ἐνεχείριζον αὑτούς, Ἀργυριππανοὶ δὲ καὶ Καπυανῶν τινες ἐκάλουν τὸν Ἀννίβαν, οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ πάντες ἀπέβλεπον ἤδη τότε πρὸς Καρχηδονίους · [ 4] μεγάλας δ 'εἶχον ἐλπίδας ἐξ ἐφόδου καὶ τῆς Ῥώμης αὐτῆς ἔσεσθαι κύριοι · [5] Ῥωμαῖοί γε μὴν τὴν Ἰταλιωτῶν δυναστείαν παραχρῆμα διὰ τὴν ἧτταν ἀπεγνώκεισαν, ἐν μεγάλοις δὲ φόβοις καὶ κινδύνοις ἦσαν περί τε σφῶν αὐτῶν καὶ περὶ τοῦ τῆς πατρίδος ἐδάφους, ὅσον οὔπω προσδοκῶντες ἥξειν αὐτὸν τὸν Ἀννίβαν. [6] καὶ γὰρ ὥσπερ ἐπιμετρούσης καὶ συνεπαγωνιζομένης τοῖς γεγονόσι τῆς τύχης, συνέβη μετ 'ὀλίγας ἡμέρας, τοῦ φόβου κατέχοντος τὴν πόλιν, καὶ τὸν εἰς τὴν Γαλατίαν στρατηγὸν ἀποσταλέντ' εἰς ἐνέδραν ἐμπεσόντα παραδόξως ἄρδην ὑπὸ τῶν Κελτῶν διαφθαρῆναι μετὰ τῆς δυνάμεως. [7] οὐ μὴν ἥ γε σύγκλητος οὐδὲν ἀπέλειπε τῶν ἐνδεχομένων, ἀλλὰ παρεκάλει μὲν τοὺς πολλούς, ἠσφαλίζετο δὲ τὰ κατὰ τὴν πόλιν, ἐβουλεύετο δὲ περὶ τῶν ἐνεστώτων ἀνδρωδῶς.τοῦτο δ 'ἐγένετο φανερὸν ἐκ τῶν μετὰ ταῦτα συμβάντων · [8] ὁμολογουμένως γὰρ Ῥωμαίων ἡττηθέντων τότε καὶ παραχωρησάντων τῆς ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις ἀρετῆς, [9] τῇ τοῦ πολιτεύματος ἰδιότητι καὶ τῷ βουλεύεσθαι καλῶς οὐ μόνον ἀνεκτήσαντο τὴν τῆς Ιταλίας δυναστείαν, νικήσαντες μετὰ ταῦτα Καρχηδονίους, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς οἰκουμένης ἁπάσης ἐγκρατεῖς ἐγένοντο μετ 'ὀλίγους χρόνους. (1) This outcome of the battle had as far-reaching consequences as had been expected on both sides. (2) With their victory, the Carthaginians got almost the entire rest of the coast under their control - (3) the Tarentines surrendered to them immediately, the Argyrippans (inhabitants of Arpi) and a number of Capuans summoned Hannibal, but all the others judged already now their glances at the Carthaginians -, (4) and they had high hopes of taking Rome even in the first onslaught. (5) The Romans, on the other hand, had immediately lost their dominion over the Italians as a result of their defeat and were in great fear and danger for themselves and for the existence of their city, since they expected Hannibal to be there at any moment [...] . (6) For as if the Tyche were in league with their enemies and wanted to make the measure of their misfortune, a few days later, while the first terror was still holding the city prisoner, the news came that the Praetor, who had been sent to Gaul, unexpectedly came into one Ambushed and completely destroyed by the Celts with his army. (7) Nevertheless, everything that was possible was done on the part of the Senate. He encouraged the people, took the necessary measures to secure the city and discussed the situation with masculine determination. This became evident from further events. (8) For although the Romans had suffered a definite defeat at that time and had to leave the honor of arms to the enemy, (9) the peculiar advantages of their constitution and their prudent countermeasures not only won them back dominion over Italy by in subsequently defeated the Carthaginians, but after a short time they also became masters of the entire inhabited earth. (By H. Drexler)
  • Hannibal did not heed the advice of his equestrian general Maharbal to attack and take Rome immediately after the victory at Cannae (Liv. 22:51). Marhabal is said to have accused Hannibal of not understanding how to use his victories. Apparently, however, Hannibal wanted to defeat Rome by depriving him of his allies and the hinterland rather than embarking on a protracted and uncertain siege. Reasons that spoke against an immediate attack on Rome (Liv. 23:12):
    • The Latins did not fall away from Rome, as expected;
    • The Romans showed no readiness for peace. Hannibal's envoy, Karthalo, who was supposed to negotiate about the release of the prisoners of war, was not even allowed into the city.
  • In Spain the two Scipions (Gnaeus and Publius) won at Ibera over Hasdrubal when he was on the march to Italy after fighting the Carpesier. He was ordered there to strengthen Hannibal, while Himilco was to take his place in Spain with a new army (Liv. 23: 26-29).
  • The Romans equipped four new legions and did not shy away from arming 8000 slaves (Liv.22,57) and prison inmates (Liv.23,14) (Volonenheer). The command was led by the dictator Marcus Iunius Pera.
  • Rome also resorted to unusual religious measures, e.g. human sacrifices to reconcile the gods and a questioning of the oracle in Delphi under Quintus Fabius Pictor.
  • The praetor Marcus Marcellus (the "sword of Rome", Plut.Marc.9) achieves a success against Hannibal (Liv.23,14-16) at Nola.
    Liv. 23,16,15f .: [15] vix equidem ausim adfirmare, quod quidam auctores sunt, duo milia et octingentos hostium caesos non plus quingentis Romanorum amissis; [16] sed, sive tanta sive minor victoria fuit, ingens eo die res ac nescio an maxima illo bello gesta sit; non vinci enim from Hannibale [vincentibus] difficilius fuit quam postea vincere.(15) I would hardly dare to assert what some report that 2800 enemies fell while the Romans lost no more than 500. (16) Whether the victory was so great or less great, a great deed, perhaps the greatest in this war, happened that day. Because not being defeated by Hannibal was more difficult [for the winners] than winning afterwards. (Transfer to Gerlach)
  • Hannibal moves from Cannae through Samnium to Campania. There the city of Capua is handed over to him (Liv.23,1-10), where he takes his winter quarters (Liv.23,18; Str. 5,4,13).
  • The annalist Quintus Fabius Pictor describes Roman history in Greek: prehistory only in the main points, the history of his time in more detail (Dion.Hal.1,6).

  • The Scipions remain successful in Spain with victories at Illiturgi and Intibili (in the east of the silver-rich Baetica). Both cities were besieged by the Carthaginians because they had fallen away, and liberated by the Romans. On the Carthaginian side, Hasdrubal, Mago, Hannibal's youngest brother, who had been sent to Spain to support Hasdrubal, and Hamilcar were the generals (Liv. 23:49).
  • The balance of power:
    • In Campania there are six Roman legions under the command of the two consuls Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and Quintus Fabius Maximus and Marcus Claudius Marcellus. Further troop contingents operate in Apulia, Picenum, Sicily and Sardinia. One fleet is in front of Brundisium and Taranto, another is preparing the crossing from Sicily to Africa (Liv.23,31f.).
    • Hannibal waited in vain for sufficient help from home. He received an auxiliary fleet under Bomilkar's command, 4,000 Numidian horsemen, 40 elephants and a sum of money, but the foot soldiers were taken to Sardinia, where the entire army perished in battle. In Spain the forces were bound by the Scipions, in Africa the Numidian prince Syphax rose against Carthage.
  • Marcus Marcellus can record another success against Hannibal with Nola (Liv.23,44-46; Plut.Marc.12).

    Liv. 23,46,1-5: [1] nec bene nec male dicta profuerunt ad confirmandos animos. [2] cum omni parte pellerentur, Romanisque crescerent animi, non duce solum adhortante sed Nolanis etiam per clamorem favoris indicem accendentibus ardorem pugnae, terga Poeni dederunt atque in castra compulsi sunt. [3] quae oppugnare cupientes milites Romanos Marcellus Nolam reduxit cum magno gaudio et congratulations etiam plebis quae ante inclinatior ad Poenos fuerat. [4] hostium plus quinque milia caesa eo die, vivi capti sescenti et signa militaria undeviginti et duo elephanti; quattuor in acie occisi; Romanorum minus mille interfecti. [5] posterum diem indutiis tacitis sepeliendo utrimque caesos in acie consumpserunt. spolia hostium Marcellus Volcano votum cremavit.

    (1) Neither good nor bad words helped revive courage. (2) They were beaten on all sides, and the Romans grew courageous; and not only did the leader admonish them, but also the Nolans increased the heat of the battle by shouting as an expression of their inclination. The Punians fled and were driven into the camp. (3) The Roman war people wished to storm this, but Marcellus led them back to Nola, to the great joy and congratulations even of the people who had previously been more inclined to the Puniers. (4) More than 5000 of the enemies were slain that day, 600 were captured alive, 18 standards were captured and two elephants were captured, four were killed in the battle. Less than 1,000 were slain by the Romans. (5) The following day both parts used as after a tacit armistice to bury those who died in the battle. Marcellus burned the armor captured from the enemy after a vow he had made to Vulcanus. (Transfer to Gerlach)
  • Hannibal enters into an alliance with Philip V of Macedonia. Philip's first embassy had been intercepted by the Romans, the second negotiated a treaty (Polyb. 7,9). As a result of this alliance:
    1st Macedonian War (215-205).
    • 214: Philip attacks Apollonia in Illyria, but fails because of Valerius Laevinus, who has led the war against Philip since that year.
    • 213: Philip conquers Lissus in Illyria.
    • 212: Rome concludes an alliance with Aetolia against Philip: Aetolia is to lose the conquered territories, Rome the booty.
    • Conquest of Zakynthos Island and Oiniadai in Akarnania.
    • 211: Rome concludes an alliance against Philip with Elis, Messene and Sparta. Publius Sulpicius Galba takes the island of Aigina during a naval maneuver in the Aegean Sea.
    • 209: Pergamon joins the alliance of Rome against Philip V under his king Attalus I.
    • 208: Rome and Pergamon together conquer Oreos on Euboia.
    • 207: Hasdrubal's arrival in Italy causes the Romans to withdraw their troops in Greece. For this reason, Aetolia concludes a separate peace with Philip V.
    • 205: Separate peace between Philip and Rome
    Liv. 23,33,9-12: [9] Xenophanes (legationis princeps) per praesidia Romana in Campaniam, inde qua proximum fuit, in castra Hannibalis pervenit foedusque cum eo atque amicitiam iungit legibus his: [10] ut Philippus rex quam maxima classe - ducentas autem naves videbatural effecturus - traiceret et vastaret maritimam oram, bellum pro parte sua terra marique gereret; [11] ubi debellatum esset, Italia omnis cum ipsa urbe Roma Carthaginiensium atque Hanni balis esset praedaque omnis Hannibali cederet; [12] perdomita Italia navigarent in Graeciam bellumque, cum quibus regi placeret, gererent; quae civitates continentis quaeque insulae ad Macedoniam vergunt, eae Philippi regnique eius essent. (9) Xenophanes (who was at the head of the embassy) came through the Roman garrisons to Campania and from there on the shortest route to Hannibal's camp and made friendship and alliance with him under the following conditions: (10) King Philip should be with a handsome one Fleet (it was believed he could muster 200 ships) cross to Italy and devastate the sea coast, and should, for his part, wage war on water and on land; (11) when the war was over, all of Italy, including the city of Rome, should belong to the Carthaginians and Hannibal, and all the booty should go to Hannibal; (12) but after the subjugation of Italy they were to cross over to Greece and wage war against the peoples of whom the king wished, and the states on the mainland and the islands that lie to Macedonia were to belong to Philip's kingdom. (Transfer to Gerlach).
  • Hannibal enters into a further alliance with Hieronymus of Syracuse, who succeeded Hieron of Syracuse, who was loyal to the Romans, as his grandson in 215 (Liv. 244-7; Polyb. 7.2-6). But when Jerome was murdered after just 13 months, the alliance situation in Syracuse remained in suspense for a while.
  • LEX OPPIA of the tribune Gaius Oppius against the luxurious finery of women (Liv.34,1) [Abolition 195].
    Liv. 34,1,1-3: [1] inter bellorum magnorum aut vixdum finitorum aut imminentium curas intercessit res parva dictu, sed quae studiis in magnum certamen excesserit. [2] M. Fundanius and L. Valerius tribuni plebi ad plebem tulerunt de Oppia lege abroganda. [3] tulerat eam C. Oppius tribunus plebis Q. Fabio Ti. Sempronio consulibus in medio ardore Punici belli, ne qua mulier plus semunciam auri haberet neu vestimento versicolori uteretur neu iuncto vehiculo in urbe oppidove aut propius inde causror vehille passus nisi .(1) Among the concerns caused by the great wars, either barely ended or imminent, an event hardly worth mentioning occurred which, however, was turned into a great dispute by the zeal of the parties. (2) The tribunes Marcus Fundanius and Lucius Valerius applied to the citizenship for the repeal of the Oppian law. (3) This was suggested by the tribune of the people, Marcus Oppius, under the consulate of Quintus Fabius and Titus Sempronius in the midst of the flare-up of the Punic War: no woman should own more than half an ounce of gold, should not wear colored clothes, and neither in the capital nor in country towns Use a wagon within 1000 paces, except for a general festival of sacrifice. (Transfer to Gerlach)
  • Temple of Mercury,
  • Temple of Venus Erycina.
  • The Romans recaptured Casilinum near Capua, threatening Capua.
  • Syracuse comes under the power of the soldiers and the half-Syracusans Hippocrates and Epikydes, who on the paternal side of a Syracusan family descended from a Carthaginian mother. They made sure that Syracuse stayed on Carthage's side.
  • Marcus Marcellus crosses over to Sicily. The technically sophisticated war machines of Archimedes let him fail in the attempt to take Syracuse (Liv. 24,21-32). So he left it with the siege of the city (Liv.24,33f .; Polyb.8,5-9; Plut.Marc.14-19)
  • The duration of the ludi Romani is increased to four days in Rome.


  • Hannibal takes Taranto, only the castle of Taranto is held by the Roman garrison (Liv.25.7-11; Polyb.8.26-36). Metapontum, Herakleia and Thurii also fall into Hannibal's hand (Liv.25.15).
  • Defeat and death of the two Scipions (Publius and Gnaeus) in Spain south of the Ebro (Liv. 25,32-36; App.Hisp.16): The two Scipions separate to attack the two enemy camps at the same time.
    • But the Celtiberians do not remain loyal to Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, but set themselves apart, so that he has to shrink back from Hasdrubal, the son of Hamilcar.
    • Publius Cornelius Scipio succumbs to the enemies reinforced by Masinissa and Indibilis.
  • The sparse remains of the Roman army are taken over by the knight Lucius Marcius. With this he even succeeds in a successful attack on the enemy camp Liv. 25,37-39).
    Liv. 25,32,1-5: [1] eadem aestate in Hispania, cum biennio ferme nihil admodum memorabile factum esset consiliisque magis quam armis bellum gereretur, Romani imperatores egressi hibernis copias coniunxerunt. [2] ibi consilium advocatum omniumque in unum congruerunt sententiae, quando ad id locorum id modo actum esset, ut Hasdrubalem tendentem in retinerent, tempus esse id iam agi, ut bellum in Hispania finiretur; [3] et satis ad id virium credebant accessisse viginti milia Celtiberorum ea hieme ad arma excita. [4] tres exercitus erant. Hasdrubal Gisgonis filius et Mago coniunctis castris quinque ferme dierum iter from Romanis aberant. [5] propior erat Hamilcaris filius Hasdrubal, vetus in Hispania imperator; ad urbem nomine Amtorgim exercitum habebat.(1) In Spain, where nothing particularly remarkable had happened in two years, and the war was fought more with plans than with weapons, the Roman generals left their winter quarters that same summer and united their armed forces. (2) A council of war was then convened, and all opinions agreed that it was now time to put an end to the war in Spain, because nothing else had been intended than to prevent Hasdrubal's march into Italy. (3) And the increase of 20,000 Celtiberians who had been called under arms in winter seemed to be sufficient for this. (4) There were three hostile armies. Hasdrubal, the son of Gisgo, and Mago stood in the united camp, about five days' march from the Romans. (5) Closer was the son of Hamilcar, Hasdrubal, the long-established general in Spain; he had his army near the city of Anitorgis. (Transfer to Gerlach)
  • Marcellus conquered Syracuse (Liv.25,23-31; Liv.25,40f.). During the conquest, the Romans benefited from the fact that an epidemic had broken out and the besieged could not agree. Death of Archimedes ("Noli turbare circulos meos!"). Marcellus can secure the profit of the city and all of Sicily (except Agrigento) through a victory over Epikydes and Hanno at Agrigento. Agrigento was still held by the Punier Hipponiates (who was called Mutines).
  • The Roman consuls Quintus Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius Pulcher make arrangements to Capua to besiege.
  • At Capua's request, Hannibal sends an army under Hanno's leadership to the area of ​​Benevento to relieve the burden and secure supplies. But the consul Appius Claudius manages to storm Hanno's camp in his absence (Liv. 25: 13-15; cf. App.Pun.36f.)
  • The two consuls begin the siege of Capua.Accompanying measures: The praetor Gaius Claudius Nero initially stays in the old camp near Suessula, the proconsul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus is ordered to protect Samnium with his volunteer army from Lucania to Benevento. However, he is betrayed, lured into an ambush and murdered (Liv.25.15f.).
  • Hannibal appears with an army, forcing the consuls to suspend the siege of Capua in the meantime, and also achieves two other successes: once he defeats the Roman general Centenius in Lucania, and secondly he defeats the praetor Gnaeus Fulvius at Herdonea (Liv. 25.18- 21).
  • Most of the works of art found in Syracuse were transferred to Rome.
  • Ludi Apollinares introduced in Rome.

  • When Hannibal does not succeed in luring Quintus Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius Pulcher, who are continuing the siege of Capua as proconsuls, into a battle, he moves to relieve Capua against Rome and camps 3 miles from Rome on the Anio (" Hannibal ad portas! "), Either to take Rome, or at least to force the Romans to withdraw their army from Capua. This plan fails and Hannibal goes back to Lucania and Bruttium. (Liv. 26,1-16; Polyb,9,3-7)
  • Capua is forced to submit and is punished accordingly harshly: The city is dissolved and its territory converted into "ager publicus".
    Liv. 26,16,5-13: [5] Capuam a Calibus reditum est, Atellaque et Calatia in deditionem acceptae; ibi quoque in eos, qui capita rerum erant, animadversum. [6] ita ad septuaginta principes senatus interfecti, trecenti ferme nobiles Campani in carcerem conditi, alii per sociorum Latini nominis urbes in custodias dati, variis casibus interierunt: multitudo alia civium Campanorum venum data. [7] de urbe agroque reliqua consultatio fuit, quibusdam delendam censentibus urbem praevalidam, propinquam, inimicam. ceterum praesens utilitas vicit; nam propter agrum, quem omni fertilitate terrae satis constabat primum in Italia esse, urbs servata est, ut esset aliqua aratorum sedes. [8] urbi frequentandae multitudo incolarum libertinorumque et institorum opificumque retenta: ager omnis et tecta publica populi Romani facta. [9] ceterum habitari tantum tamquam urbem Capuam frequentarique placuit, corpus nullum civitatis nec senatum nec plebis concilium nec magistratus esse: [10] sine consilio publico, sine imperio multitudinem nullius rei inter se sociam ad consensum inhabilem fore; praefectum ad iura reddenda from Roma quotannis missuros. [11] ita ad Capuam res compositae consilio ab omni parte laudabili. severe et celeriter in maxim noxios animadversum; multitudo civium dissipata in nullam spem reditus; [12] non saevitum incendiis ruinisque in tecta innoxia murosque, et cum emolumento quaesita etiam apud socios lenitatis species incolumitate urbis nobilissimae opulentissimaeque, cuius ruinis omnis Campania, omnes, qui Campaniam circa accolunt populi, ingemuissent; [13] confessio expressa hosti quanta vis in Romanis ad expetendas poenas ab infidelibus sociis et quam nihil in Hannibale auxilii ad receptos in fidem tuendos esset.(5) From Cales they returned to Capua and Atella and Calatia also submitted. There, too, the main ringleaders were punished. (6) So about seventy of the most distinguished senators were killed. About 300 noble campers were thrown in jail; others were taken into custody in the cities of the Latin allies and died in various ways. The rest of the Campanian citizens were sold as slaves. (7) It remained to be decided about the city and the landscape. Some believed that such a strong, nearby enemy city must be destroyed. However, it was the immediate benefit that made the difference. Because of the landscape, which was acknowledged to be the first in Italy due to the fertility of the soil, the city was preserved so that the landowners could still have a residence. (8) The large number of residents, freedmen, shopkeepers and craftsmen were retained for the population of the city; all land and buildings were declared state property of the Romans. (9) Incidentally, the decision contained that the city of Capua should only be inhabited and populated without an actual civil parish, a meeting of the Senate or the people taking place. The population should be incapable of any kind of community without advice, without all rights; every year they would send a senior official from Rome to exercise their jurisdiction. (11) Thus the affairs of Capua were arranged, a measure to be commended in every respect. Those most guilty were punished severely and quickly; the mass of the citizens was scattered with no hope of return. (12) But no fire and no destruction raged against the innocent buildings and walls, and at the same time with the benefit the appearance of leniency was intended also with the allies, because the most famous and richest city was preserved, over whose destruction all Campania and all, who live in the vicinity would have sighed. (13) The enemy was forced to admit that, on the one hand, the Romans possessed tremendous strength to take revenge on their faithless allies, and, on the other hand, that no help was to be expected from Hannibal to help those whom he had placed under his protection. To give security. (Transfer to Gerlach)
  • Hannibal's attack on Rhegion remains unsuccessful.
  • Publius Cornelius Scipio, the son of the consul of 218, the 212 in Spain, at the age of 25, he took command of a consulate as "Pro-consul" in Spain. His predecessor, Praetor Gaius Claudius Nero, was unsuccessful (Liv.26.17; Zonar.9.7; Front.Strat.1,5,19). When it was decided that his successor would be elected by the people, Scipio was the only candidate. (Liv. 26,18-20; cf. Polyb.10,2f .; App.Hisp.23). He arrives in Spain in the winter of 211/210.
    Liv. 26,19,3-5: [3] fuit enim Scipio non veris tantum virtutibus mirabilis, sed arte quoque quadam ab iuventa in ostentationem earum compositus, [4] pleraque apud multitudinem aut per nocturnas visa species aut velut divinitus mente monita agens, sive et ipse capti quadam superstitione ut imperia consiliaque velut sorte oraculi missa sine cunctatione exsequerentur. [5] ad hoc iam inde ab initio praeparans animos, ex quo togam virilem sumpsit nullo die prius ullam publicam privatamque rem egit quam in Capitolium iret ingressusque aedem consideret et plerumque solus in secreto ibi tempus tereret.For Scipio was not only admirable for real virtues, but he had also, with a certain calculation, from his youth he got used to displaying them (4) so ​​that he revealed most of it to the people, as it were through nocturnal apparitions or as divine ones Inspirations acted, be it that he himself was not free from a certain superstition, or so that they could carry out his orders and advice as oracles, as it were, without hesitation. (5) He had worked towards this from the beginning by not sitting down on any day since he put on the men's toga without going to the Capitol, where he entered the temple and mostly lingered alone in a secluded place for a while. (Transfer to Gerlach)
  • He had already proven himself before than he
    • 218 saved his father's life on Ticinus,
    • 216 after Cannae foiled the attempt of some young nobles to give up Rome completely and move away
  • Against Philip of Macedonia, the Romans made an alliance with the Aitolians, Eleians, Spartans and the kings Pleuratus of Thrace, Scerdilaedus of Illyria and Attalus of Pergamon (Liv. 26.25; Polyb. 8.15f.). Philip's allies are the Achaeans. From 210 onwards, the leadership of the war rests on the Roman side in the hands of Praetor Sulpicius Galba (Liv.26.26; Liv.27.22)
  • A famine leaves the Romans Ptolemy VI. ask from Egypt for grain deliveries.
  • The annalist Lucius Cincius Alimentus, who like Fabius Pictor wrote Roman history in Greek, is Praetor.