What is your favorite dua from hadith

How do things grow together, which perhaps only belong together at second glance? Abdelmalek Hibaoui works on a Muslim theology of living together. He puts the philanthropy of his religious traditions at the center.

We are all convinced that on this globe, which is there for all of us, people live in different ways and that cultures are different from one another. People speak different languages, and religions guide people in different ways. People are born with different skin colors and different traditions also give their life its “color”. People dress differently and express their views and beliefs in different ways; their music, their art and their literature have different styles.

The Koran describes ideological and religious pluralism as being willed by God.

Islam, as a monotheistic religion, keeps reproaching its followers that the diversity of people, not only according to color and wealth, gender and language, is a natural thing (Koran, 30:22); he even describes ideological and religious pluralism as being willed by God. I quote from the holy book of the Muslims, the Koran, sura 11: verse 118: "And if your God had wanted it, he would have made people all into one community". In another verse from the Quran it reads: " We have established a direction and a path for each of you. And if God had willed, He would have made you one community. But he wants to test you in what he has given you. Therefore, compete for good. You will all return to God; and then He will tell you what you disagree about.[5:48-49]

There is no compulsion to believe.

A principle that is considered to be a guarantee of religious freedom in Islam is pluralism. The divine will did not want to gather all people into a single religion. The Koran verse with a corresponding meaning "If your Lord had wanted it, all people on earth would have appropriated and believed the truth. Do you want to use violence against people to make them believe?. ”(10:99) cf. (18:19) also expresses that the divine will places value on the choice of man, which he prefers through his free will, and that man should be allowed to act freely with regard to it the choice of religion, which is a vital decision. The core of this comprehensive attitude of intellectual as well as practical tolerance is the really fundamental statement in 2: 256 factual statement and prohibition at the same time: "There is no compulsion to believe ”.

That is, since belief concerns the forum internum, compulsion to do so is an unsuitable attempt, but even this hopeless attempt is prohibited. That is why religious disputes should also be carried out in a friendly and peaceful manner, namely, the outcome should be left to God. (Koran 4:59) All human beings are God's creation. God created them from one source, from Adam and Eve in the most varied of shapes. Islam sees these distinctions between people as a sign of God. So it says in the Koran: "And under His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages ​​and colors. In it are signs for those who know.“ (30:23)

... nobody more than human and nobody less than human.

Despite all these differences, people have one thing in common. They are all human; nobody more than human and nobody less than human. The diversity of human groups must not prevent us from getting to know them better and granting them the necessary tolerance - otherwise we cannot fulfill our task as vicarious rulers on this earth. Yes, in addition, it is precisely this diversity of other groups of people that enables us to fulfill our humane task. Because through the efforts that are required to understand the others, which also include being really rooted in one's own culture, not least through the tolerance to be exercised towards them, we get the chance for self-education without having to act and behave responsibly not possible. The Koran says about this: “O people, We created you out of a male and a female being and made you into associations and tribes so that you can get to know one another. Verily, before God is the most respected of you, who is the most God-fearing, the most pious, the most righteous ... " (49:13)

Because of this necessity that people, regardless of their differences and beyond, get to know one another precisely because of them, Islam has called for an impartial religious dialogue and says about it: "Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful admonition, and argue (i.e. dispute) with them in the best way. Truly, your Lord knows better who has strayed from His way; and He knows better those who follow guidance„. (16:1259

We should better leave the judgment of our fellow human beings to God.

So we should better leave the judgment of our fellow human beings to God. Instead, we should strive to be fair and tolerant towards them. Religion is about our actions for which we are responsible. Therefore it also says in another passage from the Koran: “... and I have been commanded to do justice among you. God is our Lord and your Lord. We have our works and you have your works (to be held responsible for)! There is no argument between us and you. God will bring us together and the way of life leads to him.“ (42:159)

According to Islamic teaching, all revealed religions are in principle valid paths to God.

This brings us to the question of tolerance in the narrower sense, i.e. religious tolerance. It is one of the religious commandments in Islam, because all revelation religions are in principle valid ways to God according to Islamic teaching. Therefore, the Muslims must also respect all of God's prophets who have appeared from time to time since the beginning of human history, such as MOSES and JESUS ​​in the same way.

Different cultures and religions also have fundamental similarities. All over the world, whether in the East or in the West, of every skin color and race, every religion and belief, people have common and equal needs. Proof of this claim is the astonishing similarity of the ethics of different religions. Don't kill, don't steal, don't lie, don't hate. These are, in fact, the basis of Islam as well as Christianity.

For a world in which we and our children can live without fear of bombs and without racism

The greatest Muslim scholar Al Ghazali (dated 1111 AD) said: "This earthly world is a caravanserai on the way to God and all people come together in it as traveling companions. But since they all wander towards the same goal and, as it were, form a caravan, they must keep peace and harmony with one another and help one another and each respect the rights of the other„[1]

Both the world of Islam and Christianity should strive for a better understanding of each other. I think that is the best way to achieve peaceful coexistence and to dismantle images of the enemy on both sides. With this in mind, I wish all of us a peaceful world without terror and war, in which we and our children would like to live without fear of bombs and without racism. A world in which we and our children do not have to go hungry and look to the future with joy.

[1] Al-Gazzali: The Elixir of Bliss. Selected from the Persian and Arabic sources, transferred by Hellmut Ritter. 5th edition Munich: Diederichs, 1993, p. 75.


Born in Morocco Abdelmalek Hibaoui works as a post-doc at the Center for Islamic Theology at the University of Tübingen. He is a member of the German Islam Conference and an imam in Reutlingen.

Image: Salih Ucar / pixelio.de